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Category Archives: Cancer Treatment

Cancer Hospitals in India

  1. HCG Cancer Centre, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
  2. O P Jindal Hospital of Cancer & Cardiac Research
  3. HCG Cancer Centre, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
  4. VGM Hospital , Singanallur Coimbatore
  5. Health Care Global, Bangalore
  6. Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai
  7. Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Centre
  8. Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai, India
  9. L. Raheja Hospital, Mahim Mumbai
  10. National Cancer Institute, Nagpur
  11. Rajkot Cancer Society, Rajkot Gujarat
  12. Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Gujarat
  13. Apollo Specialty Hospital, Teynampet, Chennai
  14. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute, New Delhi
  15. Metro Hospital & Cancer Research Centre, Jabalpur
  16. Bengal Oncology Centre, Kolkata
  17. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Institute, Kolkata
  18. Rai Memorial Medical Centre, chennai
  19. Apollo Speciality Cancer Hospital Chennai
  20. Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center Bangalore
  21. Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital, Bangalore
  22. B Borooah Cancer Hospital Guwahati
  23. Saroj Gupta Cancer Institute, Kolkata
  24. Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Patna
  25. Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad
  26. Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar- Chennai
  27. Tata Medical Hospital, Kolkata India
  28. Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  29. Dharamshila Cancer Foundation and Research Centre
  30. Action Cancer Hospital, New Delhi
  31. Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital, Rajasthan
  32. Metro Hospital & Cancer Institute, Delhi
  33. Basavatarakam Cancer Research Centre Hyderabad
  34. HCG Manavata Cancer Centre,Renuka Nagar, Nashik
  35. D Hinduja Hospital For Neurology, Mumbai
  36. Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai
  37. Kidwai Memorial institute of Oncology, Bangalore
  38. Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai

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Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India

Top 20 Cancer Specialists in India |

Oncologists/Oncosurgeons

Here is the list of top 20 Oncologists in India /the top 20 Oncosurgeons in India.

1.Dr. Suresh H. Advani

Dr.-Suresh-Advani

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • Fellowship

Brief Profile:

Dr. Advani is a famous oncologist and hematoma-oncologist having the experience of more than 43 years. Successfully he transplanted bone marrow into a nine-year-old girl who is suffering from Myeloid Leukemia. Dr. Advani treated children with lymphoblastic leukemia and helped 1,200 patients. He got experience in the BMT field from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre, Seattle, Washington. He worked with Dr. E Donnal Thomas, who is known as the father of BMT, who won the Nobel Prize in medicine. Dr. Suresh H. Advani is a member of the Indian Society of Oncology, a member of the Medical and Pediatric Oncology Society. He is also the Secretary of the Indian Journal of Haematology and Blood Transfusion. He is interested in Lymphomas, Bone marrow transplant, Acute Leukemia, Multiple myeloma, Breast Cancer, etc. Know more about Leukemia.

Highlights:

Dr. Suresh H. Advani is honored with various awards in India:

  • Padma Bhushan Award in 2012
  • Padma Shri in 2002.
  • theDhanvantari Award in 2002
  • B. C. Roy National Award in 2005
  • Rashtriya Krantiveer Award in2014
  • He was also awarded Lifetime Achievement in Oncology by Harvard Medical International in 2005.

Hospital Website: www.jaslokhospital.net

2.Dr. Harit Chaturvedi

Dr.-Harit-Chaturvedi

Qualification:

  • MBBS (GSVM Medical, College, Kanpur)
  • MS (GSVM Medical, College, Kanpur)
  • MCh- Surgical Oncology)

Brief Profile:

Dr. Harit Chaturvedi is a famous Oncologist in India who is having the experience of more than 25 years. Dr. Chaturvedi worked with India’s renowned hospitals. He is appreciated for his medical and surgical skills in Oncology. He has been supporting the reason for the awareness of cancer and fighter against Tobacco for the last 15 years through cancer foundations. Now is HOD at MAX SUPER SPECIALITY HOSPITAL, SAKET, NEW DELHI.
Dr. Harit is a member of the Indian Association of Surgical Oncology, Oncology Forum, Core Cancer Foundation, Association of Surgeons of India, India Society of Oncology Association of Breast Surgeons of India, and Delhi Medical Association.

Highlights:

  • Dr. Harit Chaturvedi has come in  news media such as:
  • Economic Times
  • Hindustan Times
  • Zee News
  • He presented many publications and scientific presentations at 50+ national and international conferences.

Hospital Website: www.maxhealthcare.in

3.Dr.Kapil Kumar

Dr.-Kapil-Kumar

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MS

Brief Profile:

Dr. Kapil Kumar is a famous Oncologist having more than 28 years of experience. Now he is a director at FORTIS HOSPITAL, SHALIMAR BAGH, NEW DELHI.

He has worked as Sr. Consultant with Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre Delhi and Honorary Senior Consultant at Dharamshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi. He is Specialized in the following surgery:

  • Breast Cancer
  • Oncoplastic surgery
  • Upper G.I. Oncosurgery
  • Pancreatic Biliary surgery
  • Thoracic surgery (Esophagus cancer, Lung cancers, and Mediastinal tumors.)

Highlights:

Dr. Kapil Kumar is a Member of following prestigious society:

  • Life Member of the Indian Society of Oncology
  • International Society of Diseases of Esophagus
  • Delhi Medical Association (D.M.A.)

Hospital Website:  www.fortishealthcare.com 

4.Dr.Ashok Vaid

Dr.-Ashok-Vaid

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DM

Brief Profile:

Dr. Ashok Vaid is a famous oncologist having more than 35 years of experience. Currently, he is Chairman of Bone Marrow Transplant & Division of Medical & Paediatric Oncology, Haematology at Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon. Treatment in Treatment of organ-specific cancers, Leukemias, and Lymphomas. He worked as the HOD of Medical Oncology, Artemis Health Institute, Gurgaon. He has carried out the 1st 25 bone marrow transplants in any private sector hospital of North India.

Highlights:

  • Ashok Vaid achieved the Padma Shri Award by the president of India in 2009.
  • He is the Member of following prestigious organizations:
  • Indian Association of Gynaec Oncologists
  • Indian Medical Association
  • Association of Physicians of India
  • Breast Cancer Foundation of India

Hospital Website: www.medanta.org/

5.Dr. Aruna Chandrasekhran

Dr. Aruna Chandrasekhran

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MS
  • MCh

Brief Profile:

Dr. Aruna Chandrasekhran is a famous oncologist having more than 42 years of experience. Now he worked as Senior Consultant with Department of Surgical Oncology at Global Hospitals, Chennai, and she was Director of Indian Redcross IRCS Cancer Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, and Mar 2002 – Nov 2007. She is specialized in Oncology and Surgical Oncology.

Highlights:

  • Aruna Chandrasekaran is the Member of following organizations like:
  • Indian Society of Oncology (ISO)
  • Association of Surgeons of India (ASI)
  • Woman Director Association of India ( Executive Member)
  • Member of Institute of Integrated Health Study.

Hospital Website: www.gleneaglesglobalhospitals.com

Kindly check the best cancer hospitals in India.

6.Dr. Rajesh Mistry

Dr.-Rajesh-Mistry

Qualification:

  • MBBS (Seth G. S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai University)
  •  MS (Seth G. S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai University)

Brief Profile:

Dr. Rajesh Mistry is one of the famous Oncologists in the Thoracic & Head/Neck Oncology field. His experience span across 25 years. Dr. Mistry has conducted 1000+ surgeries. He did his surgical oncology training at Tata Memorial Hospital. In India, he has started ‘submandibular salivary gland transfer’ on radiation therapy. Dr. Mistry is interested in:

  • Thoraco-laparoscopic Oesophagostomy
  • Thoracoscopic Surgery.

Highlights:

  • Mistry has published many scientific articles in the reviewed journal.

Hospital Website: www.kokilabenhospital.com 

7. Dr. S Hukku

Dr.-S-Hukku

Qualification:

  • MBBS (PGIMER, Chandigarh)
  • MD (SGPGI, Lucknow)

Brief Profile:

Dr. S Hukku is one of the famous oncologists in India with the experienced of 35+ years. He has done his training at the renowned hospitals in the world such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre, New York, New York Memorial Hospital of Queens, New York, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Charite University, Berlin, and Cookridge Hospital, Leeds, UK. He has been introducing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and later Image-Guided radiation Therapy in our country. Dr. Hukku particular interest in:

  • Image-Guided Radiotherapy
  • Head and Neck Cancer
  • Brain Tumours and Breast Cancer
  • Association of Radiation Oncologists

Highlights:

He is a member of the following renowned societies:

  • American Society for Radiation (ASTRO).
  • European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology.
  • He is on International Advisory Board of International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology & Physics published by the American Society for Radiation Oncology, and he is an on the panel of International Experts appointed by International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

Hospital Website: https://www.blkhospital.com/

8. Dr. Bidhu K Mohanti

Dr.Bindu K Mohanti

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD

Brief Profile:

Dr. Bidhu K Mohanti is a famous oncologist in India with the experience of 32+ years. Now he is Director and HOD of Radiation Oncology at Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon. He offered treatment of Conditions like Cancer Treatment by radiation therapy. Best Cancer Treatment. His keen interest in

  • Head and Neck, GI & Hepato-biliary
  • Lung, pediatric cancers
  • Hematologic malignancies Brachytherapy
  • Palliative Care
  • Cancer Survivorship.

Highlights:

Dr. Bidhu K Mohanti presented 135publication with 18 abstracts, 1 Textbook, six book chapters, 110 articles, and 105 invited national and international presentations.

Hospital Website: https://www.fmri.in/

‎9. Dr. Vinod Raina

Dr.Vinod_Raina

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • FRCP

Brief Profile:

Dr. Vinod Raina is one of the famous oncologists with experience of 37 years. Now he is working as Director & HOD, Medical Oncology, Haematology & BMT Fortis Memorial Research Institute in Gurgaon.

Dr. Vinod Raina performed about 600 transplants for cancers, the largest in India, and about 250 allotransplants. He conducted 1st high dose chemotherapy in India. He has an interest in Concurrent Bio – Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers. His particular interest in Concurrent Bio – Radiotherapy, Paediatric Chemotherapy & Palliative Bio – Chemotherapy.

Hospital Website: https://www.fmri.in/

10. Dr. Sabyasachi Bal

Oncologists in India-Dr.-Sabyasachi BAL

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MS
  • DNB
  • FRCS

Brief Profile:

Dr. Sabyasachi Bal is one of the famous oncologists in the field of oncology. Now he is worked as Director of the Thoracic Surgery and Thoracic Surgical Oncology department at Fortis Vasant Kunj. He started diagnostic and therapeutic thoracoscopy. His specialization includes:

  • Thoracic surgery
  • Foregut surgery
  • Thoracoscopic surgery
  • Palliative surgery & resection of foregut tumors
  • Thyroid & parathyroid surgery
  • Airway stenting & laser interventions

Highlights:

  •   Sabyasachi BAL published many research & publications in  Indian Association of Surgical Oncology (JASO)
  • He is the member of Association of Surgeons of India (ASI), American Association of Thoracic Surgery (AATS), Indian Association of Surgical Oncology & Indian Association of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeons (IACTS).

Hospital Website: https://www.fortishealthcare.com/

Kindly check the best cancer hospitals in India.

11. Dr. Hari Goyal

Dr.Hari Goyal

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DM

Brief Profile:

Dr. Hari Goyal is one of the famous oncologists with the experience of more than 23 years in the best Cancer Centres in India. He has contributed to cancer chemotherapy by his clinical research. He also developed drugs that help to reduce the side effects of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  • His work is clinical research treatment of patients.
  • Dr. Goyal did his education from famous colleges in India like AIIMS, Sardar Patel medical college, and SMS Medical College.

Highlights:

  • Hari Goyal has done many publications in national and international journals.
  • He was also a member of an American FDA audited trial.
  • He achieved by many famous & prestigious national awards.

Hospital Website: https://www.artemishospitals.com/

12. Dr. Tejinder Kataria

Oncologists in India-Dr. Tejinder Kataria

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DNB

Brief Profile:

Dr. Tejinder Kataria is a very talented and famous oncologist in India having experience of more than 28 years. Now she is working as the Chairperson of the Radiation Oncology department in Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon. She introduced the latest techniques of stereotactic radiation with micro multi-leaf collimation; Image-Guided Radiotherapy, whole body stereotactic radiotherapy, Intensity Modulated Ratreatmenty. Her particular field of interest is:

  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT),
  • SRS
  • Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)
  • Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT)

She worked at Artemis Health Institute as a Head of  Radiation Oncology, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute as senior Consultant and Indraprastha University as Professor and many others.

Highlights:

  • Dr. Tejinder Kataria is Member of prestigious organizations such as:
  • Indian College of Radiation Oncology
  • Association of Radiation Oncologists of India
  • Indian Society of Radiation Biology
  • Association of Medical Physicists of India.

Hospital Website:  http://www.medanta.org/

13. Dr. Rajesh Jindal

Dr. Rajesh Jindal/Oncologists in India

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD

Brief Profile:

Dr. Rajesh Jindal is a famous Oncologist in Kolkata, having experience of more than 23 years. He has worked with many renowned hospitals in Kolkata. Dr. Jindal was operated as an Associate Consultant in Medical Oncology at King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Dr. Rajesh Jindal has done MBBS &MD in Radiotherapy from some of the eminent colleges of India.

14.Dr (Col.) R Ranga Rao

Dr (Col.) R Ranga Rao

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DM

Brief Profile:

Dr (Col.) R Ranga Rao is one of the famous Medical oncologists in India, having over 30+ years of experience in the Medical Oncology field. He is managing and treating the Lung cancers, Pleura, Breast, Brain Tumours, Kidney, Urinary Bladder, Ovarian Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Oesophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon Cancer, Rectum, Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Bone, Skin, and Lymphomas of all types, Prostrate, Head and Neck.

He is interested in the following specialization:

He worked with Paras Hospital; he has also worked with prestigious healthcare institutions of India.

Highlight:

  • He is a member of various organizations such as
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology ( ASCO)
  • European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO)
  • Indian Society of Medical and Pediatric Oncology
  • He has achieved several awards and recognitions.

Hospital Website: https://www.parashospitals.com/

15.Dr. Jyoti Wadhwa

Oncologists in India-Dr. Jyoti Wadhwa

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DM

Brief Profile:

Dr. Jyoti Wadhwa is a famous oncologist with experience of 21+ years. Now he is working as Associate Director at the Medical Oncology & Haematology department of Medanta Hospital, Gurgaon. His specialties are:

She worked as Assistant Professor of Medical Oncology at IRCH, A.I.I.M.S., New Delhi, CME Co-ordinator National Academy of Medical Sciences, India Deputy Secretary at National Academy of Medical Sciences, India.

Highlight:

  •  Dr. Jyoti Wadhwa achieved Sir Shriram Memorial Award by the National Academy of Medical Sciences in 2008 for best-published work in her book on breath cancer, on Community Medicine, Medical Education.
  • She is the Member of prestigious organizations like
  • National Academy of Medical Sciences, India (NAMS)
  • Indo – American Cancer Association (IACA)
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).
  • Hospital

Website: http://www.medanta.org/

Kindly check the best cancer hospitals in India.

16.Dr. Sandeep Mehta

Dr.Sandeep Mehta

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MS
  • MCh

Brief Profile:

Dr. Sandeep Mehta is a famous oncologist having experience of more than 22 years. Now he is worked as Assistant Director of Surgical Oncology department at BLK Super Speciality Hospital, Delhi. His specialties are:

  • E Transoral and micro laryngeal Laser surgery
  • Head Neck Oncology
  • Skull base resection and reconstruction
  • Post Laryngectomy voice rehabilitation.

He worked as Sr. Consultant at Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, New Delhi, and he also worked as an Associate Specialist at Tata Main Hospital.

Highlights:

  • Dr. Sandeep Mehta is the Member of  following prestigious organizations such as:
  • National Academy of Burns, India.
  • International Confederation for Plastic Reconstructive.
  • Aesthetic Surgery.

Hospital Website: https://www.blkhospital.com/

17. Dr. Sunil Kumar Gupta

Dr. Sunil Kumar Gupta/Oncologists in India

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD
  • DM

Brief Profile:

Dr. Sunil Kumar Gupta is the famous Hemato-Medical Oncologist having experience of more than 27 years. His specialization is treating     all stages of followings:

  • Solid Tumors
  • Hematological Malignancies
  • Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant
  • High dose Chemotherapy with growth factor support
  • Regional Chemotherapy.

Highlights:

  • Sunil Kumar Gupta is a proud member of the National Board of Medical Oncology Super-specialty course.
  • He has achieved Best Medical Oncologist award by Medgate;
  • He is also achieved the Best Poster Award in Thailand and Excellence award by Eli Lily and Company.
  • Dr. Gupta took part in various National and International Conferences like Speaker, Chairperson, Panelist, and Moderator.

Hospital Website: https://www.venkateshwarhospitals.com/

18. Dr. Sankar Srinivasan

Oncologists in India-Dr.shankar-srinivasan

Qualification:

  • MBBS (Wayne State University, Detroit)
  • MD (Wayne State University, Detroit)
  • AB (Wayne State University, Detroit)

Brief Profile:

Dr. Sankar Srinivasan is a famous medical Oncologist having the experience of more than 28+ years. He is a member of the American College of Physicians, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and Tamil Nadu Medical Council.

Highlights:

  • Dr. Sankar Srinivasan came in the top 3% in medical school board certified in Internal medicine, and top 10% in the Hematology boards.
  • He achieved American cancer society fellow award Ohio and Best Motor award.

Hospital Website: https://chennai.apollohospitals.com/

19. Dr. PL Kariholu

Dr.P. L Kariholu

Qualification:

  • MBBS ( Medical College Srinagar)
  • MS(Govt. Medical College Srinagar)
  • Fellowship(Association of Surgeons of India)

Brief Profile:

Dr. PL Kariholu is a famous oncologist having the experience of more than 35 years. He has been complemented by the Medical Council of India and by Karnataka Chapter Association of Surgeon of India.

Highlights:

  • Dr. Kariholu is a member of the following organization:
  • Indian Medical Association
  • Association of Surgeons of India
  • Association of Minimal Access Surgeons of India
  • Association of Surgical Oncologists of India.

He published 40+ research papers for national and international journals.

Hospital Website: https://www.shardahospital.org/

20. Dr. Subodh Chandra Pande

Dr. Subodh Chandra Pande

Qualification:

  • MBBS
  • MD

Brief Profile:

Dr. Subodh Chadra Pnndea is a famous Oncologist with the experience of more than 33 years. Now he is worked as Head – Radiation Oncology with Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon. He is specialized in the use of Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) and PET Scan based techniques for cancer treatment. His Expertise’s are:

  • Oncology Medicine
  • All Modern Teletherapy
  • Brachytherapy Procedures

Highlights:

  • Subodh Chandra Pande is the Member of various famous organizations as:
  • Association of Radiation Oncologists of India (AROI)
  • Paediatric Hematology & International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP)
  • Association of Medical Physicists of India
  • Indian Society of Oncology (ISO)

Hospital Website:  www.artemishospitals.com

Kindly check the best cancer hospitals in India.

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Endometrial Cancer- Diagnosis and Treatment

A brief overview of Endometrial Cancer-Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Management

Endometrial cancer or uterine cancer refers to the abnormal growth of the epithelial cells, resulting in a tumour, which invades the local tissue and spreads or metastasizes to distant sites or organs.

The uterus is a pear-shaped organ in the pelvic cavity, the main function of which is to carry the foetus until it develops enough to be delivered out into the world. It is a muscular organ which is lined by epithelium, known as the endometrium. In the endometrium, the zygote is implanted and successively develops into an embryo and then a foetus. Beneath it lays the myometrium, made of smooth muscle cells, which provide the power for contraction during childbirth. It is covered on the outside by a fibrous tissue known as the serosa.

Symptoms:
  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding (It may be in-between menses, spotting of inner garments or irregular menstrual periods. In post-menopausal women, any bleeding is abnormal.
  2. Any abnormal vaginal discharge
  3. Pelvic pain
  4. 4. Loss of appetite
  5. Fatigue and Exhaustion
  6. Abdominal cramping and bloating
  7. A quick feeling of satiety on eating

Risk Factors:

Endometrial Cancer

Non-Modifiable Risk Factors:
  1. Age
  2. Genetic Composition
  3. Females with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutation are more at risk for developing endometrial cancers.
  4. Lynch Syndrome
  5. Family History
  6. Early beginning of menstruation and late menopause
  7. Ovarian Tumours
Modifiable Risk Factors:
  1. Late pregnancy and having no child poses a higher risk
  2. One or more full-term pregnancies reduces the risk
  3. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months reduces the risk
  4. Hormone Replacement Therapy post menopause increases the risk
  5. high-fat diet leads to increased risk of hyperplasia and development of cancer.
  6. Research has shown that highly active females have lower risk while idle females have a higher risk.

Diagnosis:

  1. Ultrasonography
  2. Biopsy
  3. Dilatation and Curettage (D&C)
  4. CA-125
  5. CT Scan

Treatment:

Endometrial Cancer

  1. Surgical excision: Removal of the uterus along with ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  2. Concurrent chemotherapy
  3. Targeted Therapy
  4. Radiation: With or without surgery.
  5. Immunotherapy
  6. Hormonal Therapy: With progestins

 

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

Prevention:

There are no definite ways to prevent endometrial cancer. However, the person must report early bleeding and any indicative signs. Genetic counselling for Lynch Syndrome may also be done to prevent its transmission to progeny.

Obesity, hypertension and diabetes can contribute to long-term health risks for women with type 1 endometrial cancer. A healthy diet and regular exercise can help one to lower these risks.

 

Ovarian Cancer- The What, Why and How?

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Ovarian Cancer- The What, Why and How?

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Females have two ovaries situated in the pelvis, which are the primary sites of production of female gametes known as ova/eggs. The ovaries have the germinal lining which gives rise to ovarian follicles, containing the gametes. Besides, they have a cellular stroma /connective tissue which fills the substance of the ovary. Ovarian cancer refers to the malignant transformation of cells resulting in unrestrained proliferation and the formation of a tumor. When detected early, it is possible to have a good prognosis with a better quality of life. If detected in its late stages, for example, when it has spread to the abdominal cavity or the adjacent pelvic organs, it is difficult to treat.

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

Ovarian Cancer

The symptoms of ovarian cancer overlap with many other benign conditions and thus, it is difficult to attribute them to ovarian cancer. They arise in the late stages of cancer when there is involvement of the uterus, bladder or rectum. They are common to premenstrual syndrome, irritable bowel disease, etc and include:

  1. Unexplained weight loss
  2. Loss of appetite
  3. Fatigue and Exhaustion
  4. Breathlessness
  5. A quick feeling of satiety on eating
  6. Lower back pain
  7. Abdominal cramping and bloating
  8. Nausea and vomiting

Persistence of these symptoms, despite taking basic treatment should raise a red flag and warrant medical attention.

Ovarian Cancer: Causes and Risk Factors

Ovarian Cancer

  1. Post-menopausal women, generally during 50-60 years
  2. Genetic Composition
  3. Family History
  4. Early-onset of menarche
  5. Late menopause or cessation of menstruation
  6. Not having children at all
  7. Employing hormone replacement therapy post-menopause
  8. Women with a BMI of over 30
The diagnostic tests include:
  1. Transvaginal Ultrasonography
  2. Biopsy
  3. CA-125
  4. CT Scan

Ovarian Cancer: Treatment

Ovarian Cancer

Treatment depends on multiple factors:

  • Tumor characteristics: Size, Spread, Invasion, etc
  • Patient Factors: Age, Immune and functional status
  • Economic factors: Cost of therapy and affordability.

They include:

  1. Surgical excision
  2. Concurrent chemotherapy
  3. Targeted Therapy
  4. Radiation
  5. Immunotherapy

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Prevention and Consultation

There are no screening methods that have emerged currently which would specifically detect ovarian cancer in its early stages.

A healthy diet and weight control are primary preventive measures.

If the symptoms persist for 2 or more weeks despite basic treatment, do not hesitate to visit your physician. Cancer mortality is continuously decreasing worldwide and ovarian cancers generally have a good prognosis.

Early detection and prompt treatment remain therapeutic cornerstones.

 

Endometrial Cancer- Diagnosis and Treatment

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

 

Information Center and References:

 

 

 

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Hematopoietic Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment

What is Hematopoietic Cancer?

Spleen, Bone marrow, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood are part of the hematopoietic system. Hematopoietic cancer is a neoplasm arising from hematopoietic cells.  This neoplasm can spread to other organs, either by infiltration or metastasis.

Three main types of “hematopoietic cancers” (HCs):

The development of leukemia is called leukemogenesis, while that of myeloma is myelomagenesis, and that of lymphoma is a lymphomagenesis.

Let’s quickly skim through them to understand them slightly.

What is it? :

Leukemia is the cancer of white blood cells (WBCs) wherein massive outgrowth of immature WBCs occurs. As we know WBCs fight infections, its outgrowth makes it incapable of doing so. In the case of myeloma, plasma cells are affected and these are addressed as myeloma cells. Due to its abundance than the RBCs and WBCs, fatigue prevails. Abnormal antibodies are produced and it damages our own cells instead of the infectious agents. Lastly, lymphoma is the cancer of the lymphatic tissue that produces lymphocytes to fight infections. The main difference is that in leukemia the blood-forming cells get affected while in lymphoma the lymphocytes get affected.

Symptoms :
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Shortness of breath
  • Frequent infections
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Bone pain
  • Nausea
  • Mental confusion

Risk factors:

Hematopoietic Cancer

The risk factors for leukemia are :

  • Exposure to radiations, chemicals like benzene
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Genetic disorder: Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Chemotherapy drugs

Now, what are the Precipitating factors of Myeloma? These include:

  • Age – mid-60s
  • Male
  • dark complexion
  • Family history
  • Obesity
  • Risk factors apart from family history is still not identified.

Treatment :

Hematopoietic cancer is indeed a life-threatening disease if not diagnosed and treated in the early stage. So test early and if positive, keep fighting and never lose hope.

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

 

Leukemia: Cancer of the Blood Cells

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Leukemia: Cancer of the Blood Cells

Classification of Leukemia- Cause & Risk Factors

Are you aware Leukemia is diagnosed more often in adults, even 10 times higher than children? As per Leukemia Research Foundation, every day 170 patients are diagnosed with this type of cancer and 67 lose the fight.

Leukemia is derived from Greek words leukos, white and haima, blood. In this type of cancer, blood cells in the bone marrow and in the lymphatic system are affected. The abnormal white blood cell count makes the body less potent to fight with infections.

Classification:
  • Acute leukemia: This is fatal if not treated within a few weeks or a few months.
  • Chronic leukemia has a slow course and includes chronic lymphocytic, chronic myelogenous and hairy cell leukemia.
  • Lymphocytic leukemia affects the lymphoid cells that originate from the lymphatic system.
  • Myelogenous leukemia which affects the myeloid cells. The myeloid cells are responsible for the production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Pain in joints and bones.
  • Frequent and mostly severe infections
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Enlarged spleen, kidney and the liver
  • Bleeding tendency or hemorrhagic tendency
  • Pallor or unhealthy pale appearance
  • Petechiae or small red spots on the skin
  • Bones become tender especially the sternum
  • Night sweats
  • Frequent bouts of fever and chilliness
  • Loss of weight

Cause:

The causative factors are not known but it could be either because of genetic factors or environmental factors.

Risk factors:

Leukemia Cancer

  • History of cancer
  • People with a genetic disorder such as Down’s syndrome are at higher risk
  • Smoking
  • Family history
  • Exposure to certain chemicals and radiation.

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

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Patient care:

  • Prevent patients from getting infected by strict handwash rule along with special diets, laminar airflow or sometimes isolation measures.
  • Monitor patients for bleeding.
  • Discuss any alteration in physical and mental health with the doctor.

 

Hematopoietic Cancer: Risk Factors and Treatment

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Understanding the different types of Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer: An uncontrolled growth of the skin cells

Skin cancer is a condition where there is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of the skin cells. These abnormal cells are usually from the epidermis or the topmost layer of skin. Skin cancer mostly metastasizes affecting other organs, making it life-threatening. Let’s understand the different types of Skin Cancer.

  • Basal cell carcinoma: It is the most common type of skin cancer which begins in the basal cells of the skin. Basal cell cancer usually starts in parts that have exposure to sunlight. Metastasis can affect the adjacent bones or tissue underlying the epidermis. Basal cell cancers grow very slowly and often remain asymptomatic for years. Basal cell cancer usually appears as a waxy or pearly bump or flat flesh-colored or light brown colored scar; sometimes, it looks like bleeding or scabbing sore that heals and reappear again. People with lighter skin are more prone to develop this kind of skin cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: It usually affects the body parts exposed to sunlight. People with darker skin are more prone to develop squamous cell cancer. The squamous cell cancer often appears a red nodule, which is firm or a flat lesion with a crusted and scaly surface.

Other rare types of skin cancer

Skin Cancer

  • Melanoma: It can occur anywhere on the skin, even in an existing mole. Melanoma can also develop in places that are not exposed to the sun. The affected parts usually are face and trunk in men and lower parts of legs in women. In people with dark skin tone, this melanoma usually affects on palms and soles or in finger nailbed or toe nailbed. Melanoma can develop in any person irrespective of their skin tone.

Melanoma usually appears as a brownish spot with dark freckles. Consult a doctor if there is any change in the appearance, texture, or color of the mole.

  • Kaposi sarcoma: It is a rare type causing reddish-purple patches. Young African men and older European adults are at higher risk of developing this condition.
  • Merkel cell carcinoma: This type of cancer causes a shiny firm nodule present under the skin or hair follicles. The nodules are found on the head, neck, and trunk.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the sebaceous glands. A painless and hard nodule is found in eyelashes. It is sporadic and very aggressive.

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Melanoma: a type of Skin Cancer

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Osteosarcoma: the most common type of bone cancer

Osteosarcoma: A common type of Bone Cancer

This type of cancer begins in the bone cells, but sometimes the cancer cell starts proliferating in the soft tissue cells next to the bone. Osteosarcoma is usually present along with the long bones however it can develop in any bone.

Osteosarcoma affects at any age but teenagers and young adults are at higher risk of developing osteosarcoma. This type of bone cancer develops from osteoblast, the bone growing cells; thus teenagers are at higher risk, especially boys who are having a growth spurt.

Osteosarcoma Symptoms

  • Pain in joints.
  • Swelling near the joints.
  • Bones become quite brittle and susceptible to get fractured.
  • Bone injury
  • Limping if cancer affects the leg bones.
  • A mass is felt through the skin.
  • Difficulty in lifting heavy weight if cancer affects the arm bones.
  • Restricted movement of the affected joint.
  • Loss of weight which cannot be explained.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fatigue

Osteosarcoma Causes

The exact cause is not known, but a mutation in the genes especially the retinoblastoma gene mutation is usually associated as the cause for developing osteosarcoma.

Osteosarcoma Risk factors

Osteosarcoma

  • Adolescence boys are at a higher risk of developing osteosarcoma than girls.
  • African people are at higher risk
  • Teenagers and young adults are at higher risk
  • People with a history of cancer.
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Young children who have increased growth spurt.
  • Tall people are at higher risk.
  • People having certain bone diseases such as Paget’s disease and hereditary multiple osteochondromas are at higher risk.
  • People with a family history of osteosarcoma are at higher risk.

Complications after surgery

  • Infections and bleeding
  • The bone grafts or rods can loosen over a period of time
  • Loss of hair
  • Mouth sores
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased susceptibility to contracting infections
  • Extreme fatigue after chemotherapy
  • Anxiety or depression
  • Difficulty in learning
  • Relapse of cancer
  • Metastasis of cancer to other body parts

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Care is taken to manage symptoms

Osteosarcoma is a very painful condition and mostly affects children. Seeing your child in pain is really very painful. Here are a few steps to manage symptoms:

  • Consult a dietician to help you prepare a balanced diet chart for your child.
  • Encourage the child to do exercise regularly. It helps to lessen tiredness and good for overall health also.
  • Make sure that the child gets adequate rest.
  • Keep encouraging the child- mentally and emotionally.
  • Make sure that the child takes medicines regularly.
When to see a doctor?

You should see a doctor if:

  • You find new symptoms.
  • If old symptoms are getting worse or affecting your ability to do daily activities.
  • If you experience any ill effects/s from the medicines.

Cancer: all you need to know about the Malady

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Bladder Cancer: a common Urological Cancer

Bladder Cancer: Types, Causes and Risk Factors

The urinary bladder is the receptacle for urine that is excreted by the kidneys. The uncontrolled growth of cells marks urinary bladder cancer. This condition is often associated with the infiltration of healthy tissues. (Know what is cancer?)

The cancerous spread is either local or sometimes can metastasize anywhere in the body. People having bladder cancer is usually have one or more tumors in their bladder.

Bladder Cancer Types

  • Urothelial carcinoma: It is the most common type of urinary bladder cancer and accounts for 90% of the cases. The disease begins in the urothelial cells, which are present in the urinary tract. Urothelial carcinoma is also known as transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for around 4% bladder cancer caused mainly because of irritation and inflammation of the cell lining the bladder. If the irritation and swelling persist for a long time, then the squamous cells lining the bladder become cancerous.
  • Adenocarcinoma: It is the most uncommon type, affecting only 2% of people who have bladder cancer. It originates from the epithelial cells.

Symptoms

  • Blood in urine
  • Pain in back
  • Painful and frequent urination
  • Urine incontinence
  • The urgency to pass urine
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Difficulty in passing urine
  • Burning sensation while passing urine
  • Loss of weight
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling in feet
  • Pain in bones

Causes of Bladder Cancer 

Bladder Cancer

Some causes that are known are:

Abuse of tobacco- Patients consuming tobacco are 5 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer, then those who do not. Tobacco has multiple carcinogens which interfere with the host immunity, damage the lining epithelium of the bladder (as the carcinogens are excreted in the urine)

Exposure to certain chemicals- Aromatic dyes, having benzene rings(aniline dyes, benzidine, beta-naphthyl amine) are irritants that lead to increased proliferation of the bladder epithelium, leading to disordered growth and finally a malignant change into cancer. These chemicals are commonly used in leather, dye, and print industries. (Know what is cancer?)

Exposure to radiation- Radiations such as those from high dose ionizing radiations, can lead to cancer of the bladder. Radiations cause a break in the DNA strands, leading to ineffective cell division. Also, they induce mutations, which favor the rapid proliferation of the cancer cells, which escape the body’s innate immune systems and thus become immortal and continue to divide.

Chronic irritation and inflammation of the urinary bladder- Chronic irritation (physical or chemical or infective) leads to tissue injury. One of the characteristic responses of tissues to chronic injurious stimuli is metaplasia, in which one cell type is replaced by another cell type, which is better suited to the stress/irritation. Thus, the transitional bladder epithelium is replaced by squamous cells, known as squamous cell metaplasia. Metaplasia, over long time durations, is fertile grounds for the development of in-situ cancers. Bladder stones and infections may also increase the risk of bladder cancer.

Certain parasitic infection- Schistosoma hematobium, is a parasite which infects the bladder epithelium. It is a trematode/flat fluke, which is also called bladder worm. With the help of their suckers, they continuously attach and detach from the host, causing a chronic inflammatory reaction. A chronic inflammatory state decreases immunity, promotes cell proliferation, and consequently increased risk for mutations and cancer. Also, the worms which are deposited in the wall of the bladder, exacerbate the chronic inflammation and lead to neovascularisation (new blood vessel formation to rid the body of the parasite) and increased turnover of the epithelial cells. (Know what is cancer?)

Bladder Cancer Risk factors

Smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer- Smoked form of tobacco is one of the commonest forms of tobacco abuse. A cigarette has nearly 70+ carcinogens, which by themselves induce mutations or promote cancerous development in a genetically susceptible host.

Older adults are at higher risk, but rarely bladder cancer is also diagnosed in people younger than forty years- Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of any cancer. As the telomerase shortening occurs at the ends of the chromosomes, there are increased chances of protein misfolding, changes in the DNA sequence, and a progressively diminishing immunity. Cancer is a multifactorial disorder of increased cell proliferation. It is the result of various environmental triggers on a genetically susceptible host.

European and European-American are at higher risk- Racial predilection of cancers is not very understood. Western population (Europeans and Americans) are generally at a higher risk of developing bladder carcinoma, due to changing lifestyle habits and the increasing incidence of other comorbid conditions like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, HIV-AIDS, immunosuppression due to long term intake of steroids, all of which impair the immune responses.

Men are at higher risk than women- Men have a genetic predisposition towards developing bladder carcinoma, due to increased prevalence of smoking as compared to women. Also, a large number of males work in dye factories compared to women, thus accentuating their risk potential for bladder cancer.

Exposure to certain drugs- Cyclophosphamide, an anti-cancer drug, is responsible for causing bladder cancer as it is toxic to the bladder cells. Pioglitazone, an anti-diabetic drug, is also prophesied to cause cancer, but it has not been conclusively proven.

People with a history of cancer- Bladder cancer have a high rate of recurrence. Thus, even after surgery, cancer may develop again in some patients due to inadequate treatment or newly developed mutations. (check: surgery in cancer)

People with a Family History-Persons who suffer from Lynch Syndrome or Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), may have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer (upper and lower tract).

Dietary Factors- Persons who consume a high-fat diet have a disturbed gut microbiota, and thus, their gut-associated lymphoid tissue immunity diminishes. It can predispose to abdominal infections, which may also reach the bladder. Furthermore, decreased or reduced water intake leads to the concentration of urine, in which stones may precipitate, or the toxins may further accumulate. This also leads to irritation, obstruction, and inflammation, increasing the risk of cancer of the bladder.

Complications

  • Pain
  • Depression
  • Significant anxiety
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Metastasis of cancer
  • Swelling of the ureters
  • Mood swings
  • Removal of the urinary bladder
  • Erectile dysfunction in men
  • Narrowing of the vagina in women

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

Lifestyle changes to prevent urinary bladder cancer:

 

  • Avoid tobacco
  • Limit exposure to cancer-causing chemicals at work
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Eat healthy food. Avoid fatty food
  • Exercise daily.
  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • Avoid food that has an artificial color.
  • Get treated for any inflammation and irritation of the urinary bladder.
  • Avoid getting contaminated with the parasite while traveling.

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Hormone Therapy: for Hormone-Sensitive Cancer

Why do you require Hormone Therapy?

Hormone therapy is a systemic procedure which is very useful in breast and prostate cancer.  Administered hormones are not targeted specifically for a single part of the body but travel throughout the body.

Hormone therapy not only helps to treat cancer but also relieves symptoms, especially in people who cannot undergo surgery or radiation therapy. When coupled with other treatments, it decreases the size of cancer and reduces the chances of the reappearance of cancer also.

This therapy is used mainly in Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, and Womb Cancer. The hormones mostly used are estrogen, progesterone or luteinizing hormone blockers.

The benefits of Hormone Therapy

Hormone Therapy

  • The therapy helps to relieve the symptoms associated with menopause like hot flashes, night sweet, itchy skin
  • Symptoms like vaginal dryness can be prevented
  • Hormones reduce the risk of osteoporosis, chances of bone injury, tooth loss
  • It helps in elevating the mood and creating a sense of well-being in the patient
  • The risk of colon cancer is considerably reduced
  • Improvement in the mobility of the joints

Associated Risks

This therapy increases the risk of:

  • Blood clots, which eventually increases the risk of stroke
  • Gall bladder stone
  • Cancer of the endometrium
  • Getting dementia

Contra-indication

Hormone therapy should not be administered to the following patients:

  • Women having active or recurrent endometrial cancer or a history of breast cancer or vaginal bleeding without any known cause.
  • In young women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy.
  • Patients with a history of strokes and blood clots.

Side effects

  • Breast tenderness
  • Irregular spotting
  • Monthly bleeding in women who have reached menopause.
  • Fluid retention causing an oedematous condition.
  • Headaches which is very severe and sometimes pulsating.
  • Skin discoloration causing brown or black spots.
  • Increased breast density.
  • Irritation of skin.

Lifestyle changes to manage symptoms

  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat healthy food
  • Do not take the stress
  • Rest appropriately
  • Get enough sleep
  • Use correct size innerwear
  • Talk to the doctor if you feel any symptom that causes discomfort in your well-being
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Cervical Cancer: Risk factors and Complications

Cervical Cancer: the most common type of cancer in Indian Women

Cervix is at the lower end of the uterus and connects the uterus with the vagina. Cervical Cancer starts at the cervix and can later metastasize to other places or can infiltrate the neighboring cells.

Some women resist the growth of human papillomavirus when exposed to it. While, in others, the human papillomavirus survives and stays for years causing mutation of normal cells of the cervix to become cancerous.

Types

  • Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the bottom of the cervix which is lined by thin, flat cells. Squamous cell cancer is a very common type of cervical cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma develops in the glandular cells which are present in the upper part of the cervix.

Sometimes both the types of cells of the cervix become cancerous.

Symptoms

  • Bleeding during sexual intercourse or two menstrual periods or menopause
  • Blood tainted vaginal discharge with a strong odor
  • Pain in pelvis
  • Rarely there is the presence of a vaginal mass
  • Lack of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Pain in back and legs
  • Fatigue
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Bleeding after Pelvic examination

Causes

Cervical cancer is caused due to mutation of normal cervical to cancerous cells. The human papillomavirus is known to mutate the cells of the cervix. Women who were known to be infected with human papillomavirus later developed cancer of the cervix.

Risk factors

Cervical Cancer

The following scenarios make women at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

  • Multiple full-term pregnancies than women who did not give birth to any child
  • Smoking
  • Girls who get physically intimate within a year of their menarche or first menstrual period.
  • Consuming oral contraceptive pills for the long-term, for more than five years.
  • Having close biological relatives with a history of cervical cancer
  • Multiple sex partners

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Complications

The complications are generally in cases of an advanced stage.

  • Pain especially during metastasis of cancer
  • Kidney ailments
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling of ankles and feet
  • Shortness of breath
  • Blood in urine or haematuria
  • Blood clots as blood become thick
  • Stroke
  • Bleeding tendency
  • Fistula

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

Prevention

You cannot prevent cervical cancer but can reduce the risk of developing this condition, by

  • Regular cervical screening every three years for young women between twenty-five to fifty and once in every five years for older women who are above fifty years.
  • Getting vaccinated against the human papillomavirus.
  • Avoid smoking tobacco.
  • Stop taking contraceptive pills for a long time.
  • Make sure you have safe sexual intercourse.
  • Avoid multiple sex partners.

The Cervix- Structure and Function

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Understanding Kidney Cancer or Renal Cancer

Kidney Cancer or Renal Cancer: Symptoms, Risk Factors and Complications

An abnormal, uncontrolled proliferation of cells often with the invasion of healthy tissues locally or throughout the body is known as Cancer. Uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of cells in the kidney is known as kidney cancer or renal cancer or renal carcinoma.

Types of renal cancer:
  • The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma which begins in the lining of the very small tubes in the kidneys.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma develops in the middle of the kidneys or in the renal medulla.
  • Wilms tumour, a rapidly developing tumour of the kidney that usually occurs in children.

Symptoms:

Kidney Cancer

Renal cell carcinoma rarely exhibits any of its symptoms in the early stage. In later stages the signs and symptoms that are observed are the following:

  • Blood in urine making the urine appear either red, pink or brown in colour.
  • The kidneys are present in the posterior abdominal wall hence the patient will experience pain in the back or on the sides.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained loss of weight
  • Fatigue
  • Intermittent fever without any infection.
  • Excessive hair growth in women.
  • Malnutrition
  • Indigestion
  • Problems associated with vision.
  • Swelling in ankles
  • Anaemia
  • A sensation of a lump in the abdomen or in the sides.
  • Depression
  • Sometimes anxiety
Causes:

The causes for renal cell carcinoma are not exactly known however the following factors that are known to cause them are the following:

  • Alteration in the structure of DNA of the renal cells causing abnormal cell growth.
  • Metastasis of cancer cells from one part of the body to kidney ell, thus mutating them to become cancerous.

Risk factors:

The factors that increase the risk of renal cancer are the following:

  • Older adults are at higher risk of having renal cancer.
  • Smokers are at higher risk as compared to a non-smoker.
  • Obese people are at higher risk of developing renal cancer.
  • People having high blood pressure are at higher risk.
  • People who are on long-term dialysis are at greater risk of developing renal cancer.
  • Exposure to cadmium and certain herbicides increases the risk of renal cancer.
  • People having a history of cancer.
  • Certain diseases increase the risk of renal cancer, like, Britt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome, hereditary papillary cell carcinoma, tuberous sclerosis complex, Von-Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Exposure to radiation.
  • Misusing certain medicines especially pain killers for a long time.

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 Possible complications of renal cell carcinoma:
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure
  • Brittle bones as the concentration of calcium increases in the blood.
  • Elevated or raised red blood cell count.
  • Problems associated with the liver and the spleen.
  • Metastasis of cancer to the other body parts.
Lifestyle changes to prevent renal cell carcinoma:
  • Quit smoking
  • Avoid excessive use of salt in the food
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Exercise regularly
  • Eat healthy food
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Avoid fatty foods
  • Do not use medicines without doctor’s advice.
  • Drink plenty of fluid
  • Reduce the stress level

Check here: Top 38 Accredited Cancer Hospitals from India

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Stomach Cancer or Gastric Cancer

Why does Stomach Cancer occur and what are the signs and symptoms?

Stomach cancer or gastric cancer is cancer caused by abnormal cell build-up in the inner lining of the stomach. Stomach cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third most common cancer-causing death. Ninety-five percent of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma, which is the cancer of the cell the most superficial surface of the inner lining of the stomach that produces mucus.

The cases of stomach cancer have decreased significantly these days. Earlier people used to consume lots of salt and pickled food as there was no refrigeration facility. Consumption of excessive salt increases the risk of developing stomach cancer.

Symptoms:

The symptoms include early symptoms and late symptoms:

Early symptoms:

  • Constant feeling of being tired or fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Heartburn
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal fullness
  • Indigestion

Late symptoms:

  • Loss of weight
  • The yellowish coloration of the skin and the eyes.
  • Difficulty in swallowing food.
  • Blackish or coffee ground brown color because of digested blood in the stool.
  • Bloated feeling, even after meals.
  • Persistent nausea and vomiting.

Causes:

Stomach Cancer

The exact cause is still not known, however, infection from Helicobacter pylori is often associated as a causative factor.

Risk factors:

The following factors are considered to increase the risks

  • Smoking tobacco
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Family history of stomach cancer
  • History of cancer
  • Consumption of food that has high salt content.
  • History of surgery for peptic ulcer
  • People with type A blood group
  • People working in metal, rubber or timber factories are at higher risk.
  • People with exposure to asbestos
  • People who have a history of infection of Epstein- Barr virus.
  • People having pernicious anemia, or diabetes are at higher risk.
  • People having chronic atrophic gastritis, menetrier disease or intestinal metaplasia are at higher risk.
  • Stomach polyp
  • Chronic inflammation of the stomach
  • People who take less of fruit and vegetables in their diet.
  • Older adults are at higher risk.
  • Men in comparison to women are at a higher risk of developing stomach cancer.
  • People having gastrointestinal reflux disease are at higher risk.
Complications:

The associated complications are:

  • Malnourishment
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Malabsorption
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Hiccups
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Metastasis of cancer to other body parts.

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Lifestyle changes to prevent the disease:
  • Try to include lots of fruits and vegetables in your diet.
  • Avoid smoking tobacco
  • Exercise regularly
  • Reduce salt intake in food.
  • Manage weight and sugar levels.
  • Avoid fatty and processed meat and dairy products.
  • Include fruits, mushrooms, soybeans, garlic and green onion in the diet.
  • Get treatment for stomach infection.
  • Avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

 

Peptic Ulcer: a Painful Ulceration in the Stomach

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Radiation therapy for Cancer Treatment

All you need to know about Radiation Therapy-Types  and Side effects

Radiation therapy also known as radiotherapy is a type of therapy used to kill the cancer cell using high-intensity beams to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy mainly uses X-rays or any high-energy radiation type known as ionization radiation.

For this therapy powerful waves of energy are used to kill the cancer cells and to prevent the growth of cancer cells also, resulting in shrinking of the tumor to enable surgery.

Radiation therapy kills the cancer cells and destroys the mutated DNA so that there are no tumour cells left to replicate abnormally. This therapy not only destroys the cancer cells but also destroy the neighboring normal cells also, with great care during the procedure ensures minimal loss of normal cells.

Indications for radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is useful for the following conditions:

  • For the treatment of cancer.
  • Post-surgery to prevent the growth of the leftover cancer cells.
  • Along with chemotherapy to kill cancer cells.
  • In the advanced stage to relief from symptoms caused due to cancer.

Side effects of radiotherapy

  • Hair loss
  • Sore throat
  • Irritation of skin
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Frequent urination
  • Burning of the urinary bladder.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Sexual dysfunction

Types of radiation therapy :

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is mainly of two types:

  • External beam radiation therapy: This type of radiation therapy is good for local treatment. For example, in the case of lung cancer, only the chest has to be exposed to the radiation and not the body.
  • Internal radiation therapy: In this type of radiation therapy the source of radiation can either be solid or liquid which is administered in the body. The solid source of radiation or brachytherapy is administered in the form of capsule, ribbons or seeds. Brachytherapy is useful in treating only a specific part of the body. This type of radiation therapy is useful in cases of head, neck, breast, prostate, cervix and eye cancer.

The liquid source of radiation or systemic therapy travels throughout the body through blood. The systemic therapy is introduced in the body either by swallowing or injected through veins. This type of radiation therapy is very useful in a special type of thyroid cancer.

What to expect before the procedure?

During the procedure, the patient has to lie down still in one position. Cushions and restraints are used to ensure that the correct position. The radiation therapist marks the area that needs radiation. The radiologist uses a CT scan to make sure the area that needs to undergo radiation therapy.

The radiologist then decides what type of radiation therapy is needed to control and prevent the growth of cancer.

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Post-radiation care

Post-radiation therapy the patient usually has nausea and vomiting tendency but the patients have to eat food. High calories and protein-rich food have to be eaten by the patient because a lot of energy is used to heal after radiation therapy.

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Stem Cell Transplant: a post-cancer treatment procedure

What to expect during the stem cell transplant?

Stem cell transplant of bone marrow from one person to another is useful while treating aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency disorder, acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and testicular cancer among others.

Stem cells are those special types of cells that can give rise to more specifically differentiated daughter cells. Stem cells are collected from the bone marrow or peripheral blood and are used in hematological transplants.

The bone marrow cells, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood, are used for stem cell transplant as they are capable to reconstitute bone marrow and also to restore lymphohematopoietic function.

Types :
  • Autologous: If the stem cells are taken from the recipient it is known as an autologous transplant.
  • Allogeneic: If the stem cells are retrieved from the matched donor-related or unrelated.
  • Syngeneic: when stem cells are donated by an identical twin.

A stem cell transplant is usually done after chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

What to expect during the stem cell transplant?

During the procedure of stem cell transplant, the recipient receives healthy blood-forming cells to replace the ones we’re destroyed either due to the disease or during radiation therapy or during chemotherapy. The stem cells are collected from the healthy blood cells or bone marrow of the recipient or are taken from the umbilical cord of a newborn child.

Blood-forming stem cell transplant:

Stem Cell Transplant

The blood is collected from the vein of an arm of the donor, who is the recipient also or from some other donor. The collected blood is put into a special machine that segregates stem cells. The rest of the blood may or may not be reintroduced in the donor’s vein through the other arm. The procedure of extraction of stem cells is done before chemotherapy or radiation therapy if the donor is the recipient of the stem cells.

After completion of the radiation therapy or chemotherapy, the stem cells are administered to the patient. The stem cells are introduced in the body through the catheter which is placed in a blood vessel in the chest.

Complications:

Complications after stem cell transplant usually happen because of rejection by the body to the donor stem cells.

Complications caused in cases of autologous transplant:

  • Bleeding
  • Anemia
  • Interstitial pneumonia
  • Infections
  • Drying of mouth, esophagus, lungs or other body organs.
  • Rarely cataract and infertility is also seen
  • Chances of secondary cancer.
Complications caused in cases of allogeneic transplant:
  • Rash, itchy and scaly skin
  • Hair loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Jaundice
  • Dryness of mouth, esophagus, lungs and other organs.
  • Rarely relapse of cancer
When is a patient discharged after a stem cell transplant?

A person is discharged only if:

  • Has no fever for 24 to 48 hours
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms are controlled
  • Can eat and drink on their own
  • Have safe levels of blood cell count.
  • They can take the medicines on their own.
  • Have some to take care of at home.
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Mouth Cancer: A deadly syndrome causing speech impairment

Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors of Oral Cancer or Mouth Cancer

Oral Cancer or Mouth Cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that can occur anywhere in the buccal cavity which means it can develop anywhere in the mouth, lips, tongue roof and floor of the mouth, gums, tonsils, and the salivary glands.

Oral ulcers mostly affect people older than forty years and are twice more common in men than women.

It is rarely caused by salivary glands tumor or sarcoma and mostly squamous cell carcinoma.

Symptoms:

Mouth Cancer

In the early stages there are no signs, however, people who smoke or chew tobacco, also people who consume high an amount of alcohol should regularly visit a dentist to get themselves screened for oral cancer.

The symptoms seen in later stages of oral cancer are:

  • Red or white patches in the lining of the mouth or tongue.
  • Ulcers in the oral cavity do not heal.
  • Dysphagia or pain while swallowing food or drink.
  • The sensation of a lump or thickened mass in the lining of the oral cavity.
  • Teeth become loose without any apparent reason.
  • Swelling is present for three or more weeks.
  • Pain in jaws.
  • Soreness of throat.
  • Sensation as if something is stuck in the throat
  • The tongue becomes inflamed and tender.
  • Hoarseness of voice.
  • Persistent pain in the neck or ears, sometimes in both neck and ears.
  • Unexplained loss of weight.
  • Unexplained persistent lumps in the lymph nodes of the neck which do not go away.

Causes:

The exact cause of oral cancer is not known what triggers mutation in the cells to become cancerous. The things that are considered as causative factors for the development of oral cancer are:

  • Consumption of tobacco.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • Consumption of substances that are carcinogenic.

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Risk factors:

 

The risk factors for oral cancer are:

  • Consumption of tobacco
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Chewing betel nut with or without tobacco
  •  Human papillomavirus
  • People who consume snuff which is a form of tobacco that is snorted.
  • An unhealthy diet.
  • Long-term oral cavity injury, susceptible to develop oral cancer.
  • People with a history of cancer.
  • Exposure to harsh sun rays
  • Weak immune system
  • Family history of oral cancer
Complications

Oral cancer is not self-limiting and the treatment should start in the early stages as it becomes very difficult to cure the disease in later stages and the only option is to delay the progress of the disease.  Complications that are associated with oral cancer are:

  • Change in appearance of the mouth.
  • Speech impairment
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Difficulty in swallowing food and fluids.
Prevention:

There is no medically proven way to prevent the onset of oral cancer, but, you can reduce the risk of oral cancer if you:

  • Quit smoking tobacco, or consuming tobacco in any form.
  • Quit consuming betel nut as it is known to cause cancer.
  • Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • Eat a balanced diet.
  • Avoid sun exposure.
  • Visit a dentist regularly.

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

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Prostate Cancer: the common type of cancer in men

Knowing minute details of the Prostate Gland-Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors

Prostate Cancer is a malignant cancer of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is a gland around the neck of the urinary bladder in men. These glands help to secrete a thin opalescent, slightly alkaline fluid that is a part of seminal fluid.

After Skin Cancer, Prostate Cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men. This is mostly adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis in the early stages has better chances of successful treatment.

Symptoms:

prostate cancer signs and symptoms

Prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic in its early stages. The symptoms, present in its later stages are:

  • Difficulty in micturition or difficulty in passing urine.
  • Urine hesitancy or interrupted urine flow.
  • Frequent urination at night.
  • Burning sensation while passing urine.
  • In cases where cancer has spread to the bones, there is a pain in the bone, which could either be generalized or localized pain.
  • Blood in the semen.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Discomfort in the pelvis.
  • Weakness of legs
  • Inconsistency while passing stool

Causes:

The tumor is mainly testosterone hormone-sensitive. It is observed that normal prostate cells mutate, causing the production of abnormal cells. In turn, these abnormal cells can become malignant over a period of time.

The factors causing cell mutation could be inherited or acquired. for example

  • In Inherited gene mutation, it is inherited by the child from their parents.
  • while in acquired gene mutation, a high level of androgen can cause prostate cancer.

(Know more about Best Oncologists/Oncosurgeons in India.)

Risk factors:

Prostate Cancer

  • Older people (especially> 50 years old) are at higher risk. A large percentage of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are over 65 years.
  • Black men are at higher risk as compared to white men. Hispanic men comparatively have the least risk.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Consumption of unhealthy, fatty and oily food.
  • Taller men have a higher risk.
  • Obesity
  • Consumption of a higher amount of calcium.
Lifestyle changes to prevent prostate cancer?

Different factors result in different types of cancer, although there is no proven way to prevent the onset of cancer. however, by taking the following precautions the onset of the disease can be delayed.

  • Avoid unhealthy food especially food rich in animal fat. Eating healthy vegetables and fiber-rich food helps to prevent the onset of prostate cancer. Lycopene which is present in tomatoes is considered to reduce the risk, however, it is not proven yet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Avoid the consumption of tobacco in any form.
  • Reduce the amount of dairy product intake.
  • Maintain a healthy body weight.

 

Cancer Hospitals and Institutes in India

Prostate Enlargement: a cause of concern in Men

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