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Know about Eczema or itchy red rashes

Eczema is a generalized term used in cases of itchy red rashes that initially extrude or oozes serum which later forms a crust or thickened or sometimes gets scaly. The eczematous rash may be caused due to many factors including allergies, irritating chemicals, drugs, scratching or rubbing the skin or sometimes exposure to the sun.  It can be chronic or acute. The rash can sometimes be secondarily infected causing dermatitis or inflammation of the skin.

Types:
  1. Asteatotic eczema or winter itch is a mild form of eczematous dermatitis mostly seen in the lower extremities of older adult especially during the dry seasons. This skin has fine cracks with redness. Especial care to keep your skin moisturized and hydrated helps to prevent this condition.
  2. Dyshidrotic eczema or pompholyx is marked by blistering itchy rash found on hands and feet which are episodic and exhibit as deep-seated vesicles or bullae. It is seen usually in summer or spring in young adults or teenagers.
  3. Did you have a pinkish discoloration with ill-defined edges often associated with burning and itching along with slight swelling? Then it could be Erythematous eczema. This condition tends to spread and sometimes even merge with another type of eczema on the skin. It can develop anywhere on the body causing roughness and dryness of the skin along with branny scaling.
  4. Eczema herpeticum causes large corps of pustular vesicles in persons affected by Herpes simplex virus, mostly in infants who are having eczema.
  5. Lichenoid eczema is observed with thickened skin.
  6. Nummular eczema affects people with dry skin and gets worse in dry weather. It appears either round or oval.
  7. Pustular eczema causes redness, Glazed surface, Little oozing of serum
  8. Eczema madidans is a Raw, Red, Covered with moisture
  9. Eczema fissum shows the thickness of skin, Dryness, Inelastic skin, Dryness, and fissure on the skin
  10. Squamous eczema is mostly chronic in nature, On soles, legs or scalp, Multiple and circumscribed, Thin dry scales.
  11. Seborrheic eczema has excessive secretion from the sebaceous glands.
Causes:
  • Environmental factors
  • Allergens like dust, pollen, mold or dandruff
  • Irritants like shampoo, soap, disinfectant, juices, vegetables, fruits, etc.
  • Microbes certain bacteria, virus or fungus
  • Hot and cold temperature
  • Stress can make symptoms worse
  • Hormones in women: eczema develops due to hormonal changes during pregnancy or during a certain time of the menstrual cycle
  • Certain food like dairy products, nuts, eggs, soy products or wheat
Symptoms:
  • Redness, swelling, and itching
  • Irritant contact dermatitis is painful
  • Small raised bumps
  • Maybe moist or have fluid oozing out
  • Thickened, cracked skin
  • Raw and sensitive skin
  • Dry skin
Risk factors:

People with the following conditions are at risk

  • Family history of eczema
  • People having asthma or Hay fever
Complications:
  • Hay fever or asthma
  • Dry itchy skin and scaly skin
  • Skin infections
  • Irritant hand dermatitis
  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Difficulty to fall asleep
Prevention:
  • Keep the skin moisturized and hydrated by applying moisturizers and drinking enough fluids
  • Identify the factors that cause or worsen the symptoms. Avoid the factors that aggravate the condition
  • Do not take a bath or shower for a long time. Avoid using hot water use lukewarm water instead
  • Take a mild bleached water bath as a bleach bath prevents the growth of bacteria
  • Use soap that is gentle on your skin
  • Dry yourself properly after the bath
  • Wear soft cotton clothes washed in mild detergents
  • Keep nails trimmed to reduce damage while scratching
  • Use a humidifier to keep yourself moist in the dry winter season
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