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Cardiology

Disease type/ Conditions

Coronary artery disease is a condition where there is blockage in the coronary arteries. Since coronary artery is a major artery which supplies the heart muscles with oxygen and nutrients its very important that there is no obstruction in its flow as it can further cause ischemia. (Know more: Coronary artery disease)

Ischemia means the absence of blood flow to the organ or body tissues, while Infarction means the death of tissues due to reduced blood supply. Reduced blood supply leads to the shortage of oxygen supply to the affected organ or body tissue. (know more about Ischemia)

Cardiomegaly is derived from two words cardio which means heart and megaly which means enlargement. So cardiomegaly can be defined as a condition where there is enlargement of the heart. This is not a disease but a clinical condition signifying some other underlying causes. (Know more about Cardiomegaly)

Arterial fibrillation is a condition where there is irregular heartbeat usually rapid heartbeat because the atrium beat at irregular intervals losing its coordination with the ventricle. The increased heart rate increases the risk of heart failure. (Read more: Atrial Fibrillation )

A heart attack is medically termed as Myocardial Infarction. It is a life-threatening medical emergency where the blood supply to the heart is suddenly blocked, mostly because of blood clots. (Know more: Heart Attack )

Heart Rhythm Disorder or arrhythmia is a condition due to abnormal heart rhythm. It can sometimes be so brief that the heart rate does not get effected or sometimes it may be so prominent that it can cause a decrease in heart rate or bradycardia or increase the heart rate or tachycardia. (Know more about: Heat Rhythm Disorder )

Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Congenital Heart Disease also known as congenital heart anomaly, it is one of the most common birth defects. In this condition, there is a mixing of oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood in the heart as blood flow is altered due to the anomaly in the structure of the heart. (Read more: Congenial Heart Disease )

Cardiomyopathy means ailments associated with the muscles of the heart. The heart muscles become so incompetent that becomes very difficult for the heart to pump blood properly to the body, resulting in heart failure. (To know more: Cardiomyopathy )

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Treatment and procedure

Coronary Angioplasty is a treatment to restore the blood flow in a narrowed or blocked coronary artery. The reason for a blockage could be a plaque or blood clots. Such blockages can lead to chest discomfort. Sometimes the clogged vessels prevent blood flow to the heart, causing an increased risk of a heart attack. ( Read more: Angioplasty/Angioplasty, Laser )

Artificial Heart Valve Surgery/ Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Heart is a beating muscle that continuously pumps blood to the rest of the body. The coronary artery supplies the heart itself with necessary oxygen and nutrients it needs to function effectively. Over time because of variety of reasons fatty deposits called plaque can build up inside the arteries clogging passages and reducing their size. This build up comprise is the ability of the artery to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart and body. (Read more: Atherectomy)

Like any other part of the body heart also requires a steady supply of oxygen and nutrients rich blood. The artery that supplies oxygen and nutrients rich blood to the heart is known as a coronary artery. Sometimes there is clogging in the coronary artery due to plaque. Over time the plague deposit can narrow the blood vessels so much that the normal blood flow is restricted. (Know more: Bypass Surgery/ Coronary Artery Bypass Graft)

Cardiomyoplasty is a new surgical intervention, where skeletal muscle especially latissmus Dorsi muscle is transformed to be reinforced for the myocardium. A special pacemaker is implanted to the skeletal muscle which helps it to contract. Cardiomyoplasty is related to damaged myocardium remodeling. It a bio medical approach to reconstruct, repair and improve biological tissue. (Read more: Cardiomyoplasty)

A heart transplant is a surgical procedure where an unhealthy heart is transplanted with a healthier heart from a donor. This procedure is performed in an individual who has not recovered after medication or other surgical intervention. (Know more about: Heart Transplant)

Minimal invasive heart surgery is performed through two small incisions which is made on the right side of the heart unlike open heart surgery. It is an alternative to open heart surgery.Just like open heart surgery minimal invasive hear surgery also requires the heart to stop pumping for some time. The patient is attached with a heart lung machine to provide oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. (know more: Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery/ Limited Access Coronary Artery Surgery)

Catheter ablation is a method used to correct arrhythmia by destroying the heart tissues that trigger abnormal heart rhythm. In some cases, cardiac ablation blocks abnormal electrical signals from entering the heart thus preventing arrhythmia. (Read more: Radiofrequency Ablation/ Catheter Ablation)

A stent is a hollow metallic mesh that is placed in the coronary artery usually just after angioplasty. Stent placement helps to prevent the artery from narrowing again (restenosis). It ensures there is enough room for the blood to flow, leading to oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscles. (Know more: Stent Placement)

Transmyocardial revascularization is a highly specialised and complex procedure for people suffering from severe coronary artery disease and angina but coronary artery bypass graft is contraindicated for them. [Know more: Transmyocardial Revascularization (TMR)]

Orthopedics

Disease type/ Conditions

Ankylosing spondylosis commonly known as ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis which affects the spines. It is a chronic condition with pain and stiffness from neck to the lower back which is progressive.  (Know more: Ankylosing Spondylitis)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition that not only affects the joints but also affects other parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disorder causing chronic inflammation of the joints. (An autoimmune disease is a condition where the immune system starts making antibodies against its own body tissues causing inflammation-(know more about Rhematoid arthritis)

Back pain is defined as physical discomfort anywhere in the back which can either be mild or debilitating.
Back pain can occur due to various reasons. However, there are many household methods along with doctors intervention to reduce back pain.-(know about Back Pain)

Fibromyalgia is also known as fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic ailment that causes pain all over the body. Fibromyalgia is characterized by musculoskeletal pain along with fatigue, sleep, memory and mood disorder.(Read more- Fibromyalgia)

It is a rare disorder causing inflammation of the blood vessels of the entire body. It is characterized by the occurrence of three characteristic symptoms of oral ulcers, genital ulcer, and uveitis. The disease is thought to involve an autoimmune response when exposed to infectious agents.(Know more: Behcet’s syndrome)

Carpal tunnel is formed by bones, tendons, and ligaments that surround the median nerve. Median nerves supply the thumb, index, middle and half of ring finger. If the median nerve is compressed pain, weakness and numbness will be felt in these areas. (Read more: Carpal tunnel syndrome)

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition where there is a bony hardening of ligaments. Mostly it occurs in areas where the ligament is attached to the spine but sometimes it also affects areas of the elbow, knee, heels, and shoulder. This is a progressive condition and as the disease progresses the complications can be severe. [Read more: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)]

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition where there is a bony hardening of ligaments. Mostly it occurs in areas where the ligament is attached to the spine but sometimes it also affects areas of the elbow, knee, heels, and shoulder. This is a progressive condition and as the disease progresses the complications can be severe. [know more: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS)]

Gonococcal Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of the joints caused as a complication of gonorrhea infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. It mostly affects sexually active teen girls than men.
Gonococcal arthritis is the most common form of septic arthritis among sexually active people with multiple partners.(Read more: Gonococcal arthritis)

Gout is the most common type of arthritis causing pain, swelling and stiffness of the joints. The big toe is usually the first joint to be affected. The disease affects around 275 people out of 100000 people, with men at a higher risk to develop this disease. If not treated gout attacks can become very frequent and painful.  (Read more:Gout)

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis also recently termed as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is a condition where a child below the age of 16 years, experience inflammation and stiffness of joints for more than 6 weeks. Due to inflammation, there is redness, swelling, soreness and warmth at the affected joints. Any joint of the body can be affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis. [Read more: Juvenille Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)]

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)  is an autoimmune disease. It is a chronic condition that causes inflammation of the connective tissues which provides strength and flexibility to structure throughout the body. SLE can involve many organs and systems including skin, joints, kidney, lungs and even central nervous system. It also affects the blood-forming system of the body. [Read more: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)]

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of degenerative arthritis caused due to degeneration of cartilage. The cartilage is protein in nature which acts as a cushion between the bones in a joint, thus maintaining the joint space between the adjacent bones. (Read more- Osteoarthritis)

Osteomalacia is a condition where there softening of the bones, primarily caused due to deficiency of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D. Vitamin D helps to facilitate the absorption of calcium in bones.  (Know more about- Osteomalacia)

Osteoporosis is made up of two words osteo which means bones and porosis which means porous, together it means porous bone. Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones become brittle with an increased tendency to fracture, especially the joints of hips, wrist or spine. (Read more-  Osteoporosis)

Paget’s disease is a chronic disease of remodeling of old bones and replacing them with new bones. This process shifts out of balance making the new bone weak, abnormally shaped and brittle. (Read more about- Paget’s Disease)

Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition of joints usually seen in older adults associated with stiffness, pain, and flu-like symptoms. This condition mostly affects older men of Caucasian descent. It is a self-limiting disease and mostly lasts between 1-5 years. [Read more: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR)]

Psoriatic arthritis is an autoimmune disease that affects around 30% of people suffering from psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis caused due to inflammation that is triggered due to faulty immune response. This inflammation causes stiffness and swelling at joints. (Know more: Psoriatic Arthritis)

Raynaud phenomenon is a type of vascular disease characterized by discoloration of fingertips from pale to blue and finally red. This phenomenon is very common after exposure to cold or emotional stress. The discoloration of fingertips happens due to vasospasm. (Know more: Raynaud’s phenomenon)

Reactive arthritis mainly affects the knee joints, ankle, and feet. Sometimes inflammation of eyes, skin, and urethra can also be seen. It was previously known as Reiter’s disease and now it belongs to the spondyloarthritis group. The symptoms are usually self-limiting and the symptoms are gone within 12 months. (know  more: Reactive arthritis)

A repetitive strain injury is a painful condition that is caused due to repetitive movements of a joint, mainly affecting muscles, tendons, and nerves. It is a musculoskeletal condition, mainly occupational in origin. This condition mainly affects the extremities, but there are cases showing that this condition also affects the spine, which sometimes causes referred pain in upper extremities,  causing difficulties to diagnose this condition. (Read more: Repetitive strain injury)

Treatment and procedure

Injuries on the ankle is a very common bone and joints injury. Ankle fracture is when there is a fracture of a single bone or a more than one bone that makes the ankle.The seriousness of the fractured ankle varies. The fracture is either a small crack or sometimes causes the bone to break into pieces. (Know more- Ankle fractures)

Knee: knee arthroscopy and knee replacement

Hip: fractures, trochanteric fracture, hip replacement

Wrist: carpal tunnel release, wrist bone fracture

Shoulder: Shoulder arthroscopy

Spine: lumbar spinal fusion, laminectomy, low back intervertebral disc surgery

Bones: bone fracture, thigh bone/femoral shaft fracture repair

Bariatric Surgery

Disease type/ Conditions

In extreme obese patients (BMI- 40 or higher).

In following weight related health problems, along with Your BMI range 35 to 39.9

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Severe sleep apnea

As per healthcare specialist’s advise

Treatment and procedure

• Approved by FDA -for people with a BMI of 30 or more; besides having at least one health problem linked to obesity (such as heart disease or diabetes).
• This procedure places a ring around the top of your stomach to create a small pouch.

• Surgical removal of most of part of the stomach, leaving only a banana-shaped section. This section is then closed with staples.
• This type of surgery cannot be reversed.

• Part 1- part of the stomach is stapled to create a small pouch in the upper section of the stomach.
• Part 2- the surgeon cuts your small intestine and attaches it directly to the small stomach pouch.

This type of surgery results in greater weight loss than the other three methods. Patients ultimately eat near “normal” meals. The duodenal switch involves two separate surgeries. First part is similar to gastric sleeve surgery or vertical sleeve gastrectomy. The second surgery allows food to bypass most of your small intestine.

Infertility

Disease type/ Conditions

Primary Infertility

Secondary Infertility

Female Infertility

Male Infertility

Treatment and procedure

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is used to treat infertility. It is a procedure where concentrated sperms are directly placed in the uterus, hence also called as artificial insemination. This type of artificial insemination occurs around the time of ovulation (the time when the ovary releases egg/s) to increase the chances of fertilization. [Read more- Intrauterine insemination (IUI)]

IVF, in-vitro fertilization, is a technique of fertilizing a human egg with a sperm in a laboratory. This fertilized egg is then implanted into the female uterus for the rest of the gestation period.During IVF, the regular menstrual cycle of the woman is turned off by injections and she is given fertility treatment and her eggs are then harvested.  [Read more- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)]

Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

Laser Assisted Hatching

Blastocyst Transfer

Oocyte Donation

Embryo Donation

Male Infertility

Sperm & oocyte banking

Neurology

Disease type/ Conditions

Epilepsy is a condition that is marked by recurrent seizures caused due to repetitive abnormal electrical discharge within the brain. Epilepsy is most common among children and older adults, young adults are rarely affected. It is one of the most common neurological disorder. (Read more- Epilepsy)

Alzheimer’s is a disease associated with loss of memory. The patient suffers from dementia or loss of memory along with changes in behavior and thinking. The symptoms are progressive in nature getting worse over time, making it difficult to perform daily activities. (Read more- Alzheimer’s disease)

Dementia

Parkinson is a nervous system disorder which is progressive in nature, affecting movement. Symptoms appear gradual, initially, the symptoms are barely noticeable. Tremors are usually seen in patients. Muscle stiffness and slowing of joints are also seen in Parkinson’s disease. (Read more- Parkinson’s disease)

A brain tumour is an inappropriate term used for any intracranial mass which could either be neoplastic, cystic, inflammatory or syphilitic. Brain tumours are either benign or non-cancerous, or it is malignant or cancerous.(Know more about- Brain tumors)

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic condition of the central nervous system that causes depletion of the myelin which is a protective covering of the nerve cells. Depletion of nerve axons are also seen within the brain as well as sometimes in the spinal cord also, but the depletion does not occur at the same time. (Read more- Multiple sclerosis)

Migraine is a familiar disorder often marked by periodic, unusual unilateral pulsating headaches which usually begins in childhood or early adult life and it tends to recur with diminishing frequency in later life. It is also known as hemicrania which means half skull as it affects half of the skull. (Know more- Migraine)

Trauma to the brain can happen by a violent blow to the head or the body. Anything from outside which penetrates inside the skull also causes trauma or injury to the brain.The traumatic injury can either be mild which means that the effects of the injury will only be for a small time and is temporary. (Read more- Brain trauma)

Other neurological conditions

Treatment and procedure

Back and neck pain is a very common condition, but only a few people with back pain or neck pain have to opt for surgery to get relief. However, surgery is not indicated for all, surgery is indicative for only those patients who are having back or neck pain for more than six months and there is no relief in symptoms even after medication. (Know more about- Spine Disc Replacement)

Decompression surgery is a corrective surgery which to give enough space for the spinal cord and the nerve to pass through it. Spine decompression surgery is mainly performed in cases of stenosis/narrowing of the spinal canal which if not treated causes pain, numbness or weakness of muscles, especially of hands and legs. (Read more- Spine Decompression with Fusion)

Decompression surgery is a corrective surgery which to give enough space for the spinal cord and the nerve to pass through it. Spine decompression surgery is mainly performed in cases of stenosis/narrowing of the spinal canal which if not treated causes pain, numbness or weakness of muscles, especially of hands and legs. (Know more- Spine Decompression Surgery)

Neuroendoscopy was first performed a hundred years in around 1910 by a urologist for choroid plexus surgery in a patient having hydrocephalus. Neuroendoscopy plays a significant role especially in the treatment of pineal gland tumor.(Read more- Neurological Endoscopy)

Brain surgery to treat epilepsy has a good percentage of success rate. During this surgery, the doctor removes a part of the brain where the seizure begins to form, sometimes instead of removing the part they alter it.Brain surgery is usually indicated when two drugs fail to control seizure. (Read more- Brain Surgery for Epilepsy)

The surgery of skull base is a complex surgery performed by a neurosurgeon along with either an ophthalmologist, head and neck surgeon, otolaryngologist, plastic surgeon or oral and maxillofacial surgeon. This surgery is mainly used either to remove or repair any abnormalities beneath the brain on the bony surface or the skull base.(Read more- Surgery of the Skull Base)

Micro-vascular surgeries are useful in reattaching severed body parts such as finger, hands, or arms by connecting the small blood vessels again and to make sure that the blood circulation is properly restored in the severed part as soon as possible to prevent the death of tissue due to lack of blood supply.(Know more- Micro Vascular Surgery)

Interventional neuroradiology is also known as interventional neurology or endovascular surgical neuroradiology is a medical subspecialty of radiology.This technique was originally developed in the 1980s by joint efforts of neurosurgeons and radiologist. (Know more- Interventional Neuroradiology)

Cancer

Disease type/ Conditions

The urinary bladder is the receptacle for urine that is excreted by the kidneys. Urinary bladder cancer is marked by uncontrolled growth of cells, often with infiltration of healthy tissues, either locally or sometimes can metastasize anywhere in the body. People having bladder cancer is usually have one or more tumors in their bladder.(Know more about- Bladder Cancer)

Breast Cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Breast cancer is a malignant condition of the breast, usually adenocarcinoma. Research has shown that breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women between the age of 40 to 55 years. (Read more- Breast Cancer)

Colorectal Carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the colon and rectum is the second most leading cause of death due to cancer in America. Carcinoma of the colon is cancer that starts either in the colon or in the rectum.It starts as an outgrowth in the inner lining of the colon and rectum which are called polyps but not all polyps become cancerous. (Know more- Colorectal Cancer)

An abnormal, uncontrolled proliferation of cells often with the invasion of healthy tissues locally or throughout the body is known as Cancer. Uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of cells in the kidney is known as kidney cancer or renal cancer or renal carcinoma.(Read more- Kidney Cancer)

Lung Cancer

The body has its own mechanism to fight with foreign particles, this system is known as the Immune system of Body. The immune system consists of white cells known as Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are present in Spleen, Lymph node, bone marrow, and thymus gland. When these cells start multiplying abnormally that condition is known as Lymphoma. (Know more about- Lymphoma)

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that is caused due to mutation of normal melanocyte cells or pigment-producing cells into cancerous cells.Melanoma is a rare type of skin cancer but the most dangerous one as it metastasizes very fast. Melanocytes are mostly present in skin, eyes and rarely in the intestine. (Read more- Melanoma)

Oral Cancer or Mouth Cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that can occur anywhere in the buccal cavity which means it can develop anywhere in the mouth, lips, tongue roof and floor of the mouth, gums, tonsils, and the salivary glands. (Read more about- Oral or mouth Cancer)

Pancreatic Cancer is a condition caused due to abnormal growth and division of mutated pancreatic cells. The pancreatic cells start functioning abnormally. The mutated cells can build up and forms a mass known as a tumor.A tumor that has cancerous cells becomes malignant. ( Pancreatic Cancer)

Prostate Cancer is a malignant cancer of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is a gland around the neck of the urinary bladder in men. These glands help to secrete a thin opalescent, slightly alkaline fluid that is a part of seminal fluid. After Skin Cancer, Prostate Cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men. This is mostly adenocarcinoma. (know more- Prostate Cancer)

Thyroid Cancer

Uterine cancer is the most common type of cancer of the female reproductive system, especially in women heading towards menopause. They are usually malignant, and they infiltrate neighboring cells finally killing them. Cancer can also metastasize and spread to other parts of the body. (Know more- Uterine cancer)

Treatment and procedure

Surgery for cancer basically targets for extraction of the tumorous outgrowth along with their neighboring cells. Surgical removal is the oldest treatment for cancer. There is a special oncological surgeon who does the surgery to remove the cancerous outgrowth. The surgery is usually performed in its initial stages.(Know more- Surgical removal of cancer)

Radiation therapy also known as radiotherapy is a type of therapy used to kill the cancer cell using high-intensity beams to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy mainly uses X-rays or any high-energy radiation type known as ionization radiation. (Read more- Chemotherapy)

Radiation therapy also known as radiotherapy is a type of therapy used to kill the cancer cell using high-intensity beams to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy mainly uses X-rays or any high-energy radiation type known as ionization radiation.(Know more about- Radiation therapy)

Immunotherapy is a broad group of cancer therapies that helps stimulate the immune system better to find the cancer cells and destroy them. Cancer immunotherapy is also known as immuno-oncology.Immunotherapy is for people with a certain kind of cancer which has no results from earlier treatment of cancer including radiation therapy and chemotherapy. (Read more- Immunotherapy)

Hormone therapy is a systemic procedure which is very useful in breast and prostate cancer.  Administered hormones are not targeted specifically for a single part of the body but travel throughout the body.Hormone therapy not only helps to treat cancer but also relieves symptoms, especially in people who cannot undergo surgery or radiation therapy. (Know more- Hormone therapy)

Targeted therapy

Precision medicine is a new approach of medical science in which a specially tailored medicine is administered to the patients taking consideration of various factors like their age, the environment where they live, their family history and even other factors that affect the person every day life. (know more about- Precision medicine)

Stem cell transplant of bone marrow from one person to another is useful while treating aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency disorder, acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and testicular cancer among others. (Know more- Stem cell transplant)

Organ Transplantation

Disease type/ Conditions

Heart Transplant or Cardiac Transplant is a surgical procedure in which a diseased heart (of a recipient) gets transplanted for a healthy heart (from a donor). The heart donor is someone who had died (brain-dead). Cardiac transplant is indicated in cases of the terminal illness of the heart when all other surgical and medical interventions have failed to give the desired results. (Read more-Heart transplant)

Lung transplantation or Pulmonary transplantation is a surgical procedure where the diseased lung gets transplanted with a healthy lung or lungs or with only a lobe. A single lobe of the lung is usually transplanted from an alive donor. There are a few complications of a lung transplant. (know more- Lung transplant)

If the liver is damaged permanently and is unable to perform its function then the damaged liver is transplanted with a healthy liver. The surgical procedure of replacing the diseased liver with a healthy liver is called liver transplant. (Read moreLiver transplant)

A pancreas transplant is done in cases of diabetes when the pancreas is not able to synthesize the required amount of insulin and rarely in a certain type of cancer. A pancreas transplant is the last retort and should be done only when no other option is left. (Know more- Pancreas transplant)

The cornea is the transparent anterior portion of the eyes. The clear dome-shaped layer that covers the anterior or front part of the eyes. It helps to focus on the vision. In Cornea transplant or corneal graft; the tissue or graft is taken from a recently died donor who had no disease or any other factors that can cause damage to the grafted tissue (of the recipient). (Know more- Cornea transplant)

Trachea transplant

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs situated on the posterior part of the abdominal cavity. The kidneys regulate water and electrolyte balance in the blood. The waste is excreted out as urine after the filtration of blood in the kidney. Kidney transplant or renal transplant is a procedure that is performed at end-stage kidney disease. (Read more-Kidney transplant)

Skin transplant or skin graft is a type of graft surgery which involves transplant of skin and the tissues that are transplanted are called skin graft. The skin graft is usually done in cases of severe injury when body tissues are injured. (Know more about- Skin transplant)

Vascular tissues transplant

Treatment and procedure

As soon a heart donor is found, the recipient is called to the hospital as soon as possible. The donor’s heart is removed first,  as the heart muscle starts to die within 4-5 hours after the extraction.  The recipient is then checked for the compatibility with the donor’s heart. If the donor’s heart is compatible with the recipient’s heart then the doctors go ahead with the surgery. (Read more-Heart transplant)

Transplantation of lungs is usually a very long and complicated method. Once a potential donor is found in cases of an alive donor, he/she is evaluated properly.  Besides, the recipient is also evaluated. If doner-recipient evaluation suggests the transplant is possible; then the doctor goes ahead with the process. (know more- Lung transplant)

Before the procedure the recipient is asked to take care of the following:

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle
  • Keep blood pressure and blood sugar levels in control
  • Keep blood cholesterol levels in control
  • Taking medicines as advised by the doctor

(Read moreLiver transplant)

Pre-operative care
  • Eat healthy and keep yourself healthy
  • Exercise regularly
  • Take medicines as advised by the doctor
  • Do not stress yourself
  • Do not smoke tobacco or other harmful drugs.

(Know more- Pancreas transplant)

Before surgery the doctor accesses the patient and examines the following :

  • A thorough examination of eyes is done to reduce complications after a cornea transplant.
  • Determine the size of how much donor cornea cells will be required for the transplant.
  • To treat ailments of the eyes which can cause inflammation or infection in the eyes after the surgery.

(Know more- Cornea transplant)

Trachea transplant

Before the kidney is transplanted, the compatibility of the donor’s kidney must be matched with the recipient’s kidney. Following parameters are generally checked:

  • Blood typing- the recipient must have a compatible blood group with the donor. Blood type incompatible kidney transplant is possible but it requires extra medication to reduce the risk of organ rejection.
  • Tissue typing– once the organs are blood compatible the human leukocyte antigen, is checked. If these factors match it reduces the chances of organ rejection.
  • Crossmatch- this step is the last and final step in which the blood of the donor and the recipient is mixed in the lab to see if they are compatible or not.

(Read more-Kidney transplant)

The wound that needs a graft is first cleaned and is then measured to ensure the number of cells needed for transplant. Anesthesia is administered, the anesthesia can be either local or general depending on the age, location of injury and nature of the injury. (Know more about- Skin transplant)

Vascular tissues transplant

Cosmetic Surgery

Disease type/ Conditions

Facelift surgery usually involves the removal of extra skin from the face, which sometimes involves tightening of the underlying tissues and redrawing the skin on the face and or on the neck. This surgery is usually accompanied by eyelid surgery for better results. This surgery is often done under the effects of anesthesia. (Know more- Facelift or rhytidectomy)

Every person wishes to enhance their physical appearance or dreams to look their best. Can there be a boon to grant their wish? If yes, then it surely has to be Cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery is a branch of plastic surgery. Plastic surgery focuses on the reconstruction of the face or body, while cosmetic surgery is totally used for aesthetic purposes. (Read more- Eyelid Surgery/ blepharoplasty)

Forehead/bro lift

Rhinoplasty is the plastic surgery of the nose and is commonly known as a nose job. It is performed either for cosmetic reasons or to improve nasal function after an accident or sometimes congenital for a condition that affects breathing causing difficulties during sleeping or doing exercise.(Read more- Rhinoplasty/ nasal reshaping)

Breast augmentation or enlargement is a procedure to enlarge or augment breast size. This procedure is performed in women who are having smaller breasts size or have drooping breasts. It is also performed in case of breast changes post-pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Tummy tuck

Liposuction is a procedure to improve the contour of the body and decrease limited areas of fat deposits.(Know more about cosmetic surgery)

A buttock lift involves tightening and lifting up the buttocks, hips, and thighs by removing excess skin. (Know more about cosmetic surgery)

Dermabrasion

Botox and fillers

Treatment and procedure

Facelift or rhytidectomy

Eyelid Surgery/ blepharoplasty

Forehead/bro lift

Before the procedure, the doctor conducts a health evaluation of the patient. The consultation is mostly about:

  • Taking the medical history of the patient which includes, questions regarding the history of nasal obstruction, any past surgeries and about the medicines taken by the patient.
  • Physical examination includes complete physical examination including blood tests and other laboratory tests if required.
  • Photographs taken from a different angle helps the patient gets an idea about their looks post-surgery.
  • During the pre-surgery consultation, the doctor and the patient talk about the expectations from the surgery and the look post-surgery.

(Read more- Rhinoplasty/ nasal reshaping)

Breast augmentation

Tummy tuck

Liposuction

Butt lift (Brazilian)

Dermabrasion

Botox and fillers

Gastroenterology

Disease type/ Conditions

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or GERD is a digestive system disorder caused due to the disorder of the gastroesophageal ring, causing a backlog of the gastric enzymes into the esophagus resulting in irritation to the inner lining of the esophagus. [Read more about- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)]

Irritable bowel syndrome

A peptic ulcer is a condition caused due to sore or breach in the continuity of the mucous membrane or the inner lining of the stomach, duodenum and rarely in the lower part of the esophagus.(Read more-Peptic ulcers)

Gall stones or cholelithiasis is a condition caused due to the accumulation of small pebbles like pieces mainly composed of cholesterol, or bilirubin in the gall bladder, ranging of the size of a grain of sand to a golf ball. (Read more- Gallstones)

Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease where the body is intolerant to gluten; a type of protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. If gluten is consumed by a person having celiac disease it destroys the villi of the small intestine. It is a chronic condition and can go undiagnosed. (Read more about-Celiac Disease)

Crohn’s disease is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease, named after a US gastroenterologist Burrill B Crohn. This is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by thick patchy areas, due to inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, extending anywhere from the mouth to the anal passage.(Read more- Crohn’s Disease)

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease with marked inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. This condition typically involves the anus, rectum and distal colon, and sometimes also affects the large intestine completely.(Read more- Ulcerative Colitis)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Haemorrhoids is a clinical condition caused due dilation of the veins around the anus, causing distension of the veins. It is a very painful condition usually because of chronic constipation however, it is also occasionally caused due to chronic diarrhea. (Read more-Hemorrhoids)

In a small hiatal hernia, there are hardly any symptoms, the small hiatal hernia is usually detected by doctors during the examination of the patient. In a large hiatal hernia, the stomach tends to backflow its content including gastric juices into the esophagus causing heartburn.(read more-Hiatal hernia)

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease with marked inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. This condition typically involves the anus, rectum and distal colon, and sometimes also affects the large intestine completely.(Read more-Infectious diseases of the colon and rectum)

Barrett’s oesophagus, named after a British surgeon, Norman R Barrett, is a condition where the squamous epithelium of the distal part of the oesophagus mutates to metaplastic columnar epithelium because of chronic exposure to gastric acids. (Read more-Barrett’s esophagus)

Radiation bowel injury

Primary neoplasms of the stomach, small bowel, colon and rectum

Achalasia is a Greek term derived from two words a- which means not and chalasis which means relaxation. Achalasia means failure to relax, either muscle, sphincters or normal functions related to contraction and relaxation of muscles. (Read more- Achalasia)

Inflammatory bowel disease is a broad term that covers the disorders of chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.( Read more- Inflammatory bowel disease and continent reconstruction)

The gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a condition caused due to replacement of normal cells with abnormal cells, which causes abnormal tissues in the gastrointestinal tract. These are the most common type of mesenchymal cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. (Know more- Gastrointestinal tumors)

Primary and metastatic liver tumors

Benign and malignant diseases of the biliary tract

Benign and malignant diseases of the pancreas

Treatment and procedure

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy

Laparoscopic Appendectomy

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic Colon Surgery

Laparoscopic surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

Laparoscopic Pancreatic Surgery

Laparoscopic Splenectomy

Wellness and Rejuvenation

Disease type/ Conditions

Wellness treatment

Rejuvenation

Treatment and procedure

Abhyanga, Shirodhara

Panchakarma and wellness treatments

Ayurveda treatment and therapies for joint pains, rheumatism, arthritis etc

Yoga & Meditation therapy, healing treatments

Breast augmentation

Naturopathy

Rejuvenating Spa and Massage

Body purification and detoxification

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