Medical Problems During Pregnancy

Medical Problems During Pregnancy

Medical Problems During Pregnancy

Pregnancy precedes the gift of childbirth and motherhood and extends from conception. The typical nine months duration of pregnancy can conveniently be divided into three trimesters (3 months each). Medical Problems During Pregnancy can be divided broadly into maternal and fetal complications.  One of the goals of ante-natal care is ‘ Healthy Mother and a Healthy Baby.’

Medical Problems During Pregnancy- First Trimester Complications:
  • Bleeding: Spotting may occur in some women as a result of the implantation, post the seventh day of fertilization. However, bright red vaginal bleeding may be a sign of miscarriage. Accompanied by lower abdominal cramps, it may be a sign of ectopic pregnancy.
  • Nausea and Vomiting are Fairly common during the first trimester. This is due to the expansion of uterus as well as gastric irritation by iron-folic acid supplementation. It subsides as the pregnancy progresses and does not warrant medical attention.
  • High-Grade Fever: Indicative of infection, TORCH ( Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex) are common perinatal infections. Vaccinations remain definitive prophylaxis.
  • Vaginal Discharge and Itching: Whitish discharge is most likely of Candida infection. In comparison, a foul-smelling discharge may point to Pseudomonas Infection. It is essential that smear and antibiotic susceptibility testing is performed before initiating treatment.
  • Urinary Tract Infection is characterized by burning micturition. Usually, a urine alkalizer in the form of sodium bicarbonate is advised.
  • Pedal edema/ swelling: Since pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state, blood clots may form in the gravity-dependent lower extremities, which may lead to thrombosis and embolization.
Medical Problems During Pregnancy- Second Trimester Complications:

  • Per vaginal bleeding: It differs from that in the first trimester by its etiology: Placental malformation, placental abruption, cervical incompetence, uterine fibroids, etc. USG Scans are, therefore, essential.
  • Preterm Labour: Before 38 weeks of gestation, due to chronic conditions like diabetes, or kidney diseases, excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid (twin pregnancies), autoimmune diseases, etc. Uterine relaxants like isoxsuprine, ritodrine may be useful.
  • Premature Rupture of Membranes: Mostly due to infection of amniotic membranes. It is a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and steroids (for lung maturity of the baby)
  • Cervical incompetence: This occurs due to cervical trauma, biopsy, smoking( collagen strength reduction). It requires a cervical stitch in a few of the cases.
  • Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia: Gestational Diabetes accompanied by proteinuria is Pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia, along with seizures, is eclampsia.
Medical Problems During Pregnancy-Third Trimester Complications:

  • All the complications of the second trimester along with fetal malpresentation ( transverse lie/ breech presentation)
  • Decreased fetal movements and heart rate

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