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Personalized Medicine: Targeted Treatment for better Patient Outcome

Personalized Medicine, is also known as precision medicine designed for individuals. Precision medicine separates peoples into a different category with the help of therapy, drugs given to the patients, and risk of disease development in individuals.

Personalized medicine is developed for selecting proper treatment based on the cellular analysis. Every person contains a unique human genome. Modern techniques in precision medicine depend on the patient to confirm the genome. DNA, RNA, or proteins are helpful to confirm the disease condition.

The precision medicine technique gives a new method of treatment. In precision medicine, there is no need for new drug development. Customization of the drug is conducted in precision medicine, which is helpful in the treatment of different category patients. In some conditions precision medicine targeted to the disease-causing agent instead of a patient’s genetic markup such as drug-resistant bacteria or viruses.

What is personalized medicine?

Personalized Medicine Concepts:

  • Disease Risk Management: – Precision medicine is helpful to control the genetic disorder. It is also helpful in the prediction of the risk of a patient for particular diseases. This approach uses the sequencing technology to focus on disease risk. By applying preventive therapy we can decrease the risk of that disease condition. For example type, two diabetics can prevent by using gene mutation therapy.
  • Application of precision medicine: – Advance personalized medicine will create unique treatment specific to the individuals and their genome. Precision medicine is a better diagnosis than other drug development and therapy.
  • Diagnosis and intervention: – Having the ability to customized therapy for individuals shows the more chances of treatment of disease. By using the genotyping process we can compare human DNA with the reference genome to identify the risk of the disease condition. Pharmacogenomics is helpful to provide more information on the patient genome which is helpful in drug prescription. The overall information about the patient genome is helpful to calculate the adverse effect of drug and risk factors of the drug to the individuals. Personalized medicine can use the diagnostic test guide therapy like MRI with contrast, Nuclear imaging agent, PET radiators including DNA sequencing.
  • Drug development and usage: – The process of drug development and storage of genomic information of an individual’s approval of the FDA is needed. If the patient is selected for the inclusion and exclusion of the genome for genetic makeup for the final stage clinical trial. Being able to identify the safety of patients and adverse outcomes from them also the cost of this therapy is must be small. Because of precision medicine, it is easy to understand the detailed information about a patient that guide to make the correct decision in treatment in prescription.
  • Respiratory proteomics: – Respiratory diseases like Asthma, Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer are the most dangerous disease conditions. This disease requires early diagnosis. Precision medicine provides personalized treatment to individuals.
  • Cancer genomics: – Now a day’s cancer is a new challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Cancer genomics also known as “Oncogenomics” is the application of genome in cancer research and treatment. Gene sequencing is used for the characterization of the genome associated with cancer. This method is helpful to understand pathology od cancer and helpful in drug and therapy development.
  • Challenges: – Nowadays of precision medicine practice increases. Physician happily accepting precision medicine because of its huge benefits. But for the rising of precision medicine, lots of challenges arise. Such as Intellectual property rights, reimbursement policies, patient privacy. Precision medicine is a field of medicine which required experts in specific fields of research like medicine, clinical oncology, biology, and artificial intelligence.

Benefits of precision medicine

  1. Precision medicine is helpful in the treatment of cancer and diabetes. Know more about Cancer.
  2. It helps to improve the recent development of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and cell diversion assay
  3. It is not only helpful to categorize the diagnosis of patients but also the strategies of the therapy.
  4. A large number of the biological data is saved and it’s helpful to improve the treatment of cancer.

Potential of precision medicine: –

Precision medicine shows initiatives in health and health care services. Precision medicine gives a new approach to the protection of patient history and confidential data. Improvement in the design of medical data is possible because of precision medicine. The innovation of new drugs ensuring more effectiveness and more safety is possible because of precision medicine. Precision medicine helpful to make the partnership between specialist scientists, universities pharmaceutical companies, and patients. It gives large scale opportunities in the scientific research field.

Precision medicine initiative and medical care: –

Precision medicine is the most important part of the healthcare industry right now, the short term goal of precision medicine is to expand the cancer genomics and develop better prevention and treatment methods. Precision medicine is helpful in prescribing improve and more effective the drug with fewer side effects. Precision medicine’s next target is to eliminate the side effects and reduce the time and cost of clinical trials. Precision medicine is helpful to eliminate trial and error inefficiencies and focus on patient care.

Personalized medicine in different types of cancer: –

Personalized medicine contains the whole study of genes. The study of different human genes is helpful in designing treatments for different cancers. This treatment has fewer side effects. The cancer treatment contains the development of cancer and screening test at less risk. Matching treatment for patient genes and cancer gene and risk recurrence. Targeted therapy is carried out for different types of cancer such as Bladder cancer, Brain cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, GIST, Kidney cancer, Leukemia, liver cancer, melanoma, multiple melanomas, Neuroblastoma, Neuroendocrine tumors, Pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, stomach cancer, thyroid cancer, and some childhood cancer. Researchers find new target cancer and create tests and new drugs for these cancers. Personalized treatment is not available for all types of cancer. Some treatments are only available in clinical trials, as well as its more expensive.

Targeted treatment in Breast Cancer: –

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that occurred in women. In earlier, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, mastectomy, and then lumpectomy were available for the treatment of breast cancer. But these therapies are not effective on everyone and many patients cause adverse drug reactions, which affected on morbidity and mortality of the patient. Retinoblastoma tumor suppresser pathways play an important role in the clinical aspect of breast cancer biology. When pathologists diagnose breast cancer, s/he studies size type and grade of cancer. Hormone receptor tests and HER2 receptor status tests are carried out. Tumor profiling test is helpful to give information about cancer cells. Test like Oncotype DX, PAM50, mama print is recommended for the American society of clinical oncology. HER2-targeted therapy is used as a drug treatment for breast cancer. PARP inhibitors used to treat metastatic breast cancer. It is FDA approved therapy for metastatic cancer. The therapy for breast cancer is depending on larger-scale clinical trial results.

WHY precision medicine is important: –

Precision medicine gives a new era to the health care industries. The following thing made precision medicine important now a day. Person to person genome is changing so the same treatment for individuals doesn’t work so precision medicine gives you customized treatment for individuals. An individual’s medical conditions and personal history is helpful to improve the therapy. Gene biology and environmental factors play an important role in disease etiology. Genomic makeup and gene sequencing play an important role in personalizes medicine. These therapies are helpful for the treatment of cancer. Also, precision medicine shows fewer side effects and more benefits. Large scale clinical trials show the beneficiary actions of precision medicine.

Precision medicine initiative in the United State:

In 2015 president Obama announced the launching of precision medicine initiative to improve health and treat disease. Precision medicine takes an innovative approach to take account of the individual’s genes, environment, and lifestyle. Precision medicine is helpful to treat the disease like cancer. Also, precision medicine enabling the physician to select a treatment with fewer side effects and improve the chances of survival. Precision medicine gives exciting ways to engage the patient’s physicians and researchers. Also, it helps to develop new therapy by including historical information and population research. Creation of workable models of information to connect the boundaries with proper securities and protections. It gives steps to increase research with high-quality data. And developed grand challenges and competitions for faster innovations.

References

  • Movafagh, Abolfazl. “Personalized medicine in modern era.” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Biology 1, no. 2 (2016): 31-32.
  • Mancinelli, Laviero, Maureen Cronin, and Wolfgang Sadée. “Pharmacogenomics: the promise of personalized medicine.” Aaps Pharmsci 2, no. 1 (2000): 29-41.
  • Collins, Francis S., and Harold Varmus. “A new initiative on precision medicine.” New England journal of medicine 372, no. 9 (2015): 793-795.
  • https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/precisionmedicine/potentialbenefits
  • https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/personalized-and-targeted-therapies/what-personalized-cancer-medicine
  • https://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/PrecisionMedicine.html
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4196974/
  • ^Precision Medicine: Harnessing the Extraordinary Growth in Medical Data for Personalized Diagnosis and Treatment
  • https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/precision-medicine
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