Medicine and Healthcare

Medicine and Healthcare: Knowledge Forum

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1. What causes canaliculitis?

Canaliculitis is an infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, which is gram-positive bacillus with small branching filaments. Fungi like candida albinos and viruses like herpes simplex also cause of canaliculitis. Mild tenderness, redness of eyes, tearing discharge is the common symptoms of canaliculitis. A retained punctual plug can also cause canaliculitis. During an examination, the physician applied pressure to the lacrimal sac which causes secretion and a gritty sensation. Canaliculitis can be treated with antibiotics and surgery. Surgery is necessary to remove the foreign body. For canaliculitis treatment, first-generation cephalosporin or penicillinase-resistant synthetic penicillin may be used. Diagnosis of canaliculitis can be carried out by sign and symptoms, expression of turbid secretions with pressure on the lacrimal sac.

2. What are the symptoms of biliary atresia?

Biliary atresia is a liver and bile duct disease that occurs in infants. Symptoms of this disease can appear after two months of birth. The symptoms of biliary atresia are show symptoms like jaundice, the darkness in urine, clay-colored stools and weight loss. In jaundice, skin color changes into the yellow. Jaundice occurs because of the immature liver of the newborn baby. Dark urine caused by a breakdown of bilirubin from hemoglobin is filtered by the kidney and removes by the urine. An increase in biliary atresia also increases the level of jaundice.

3. What are the symptoms of strained tendon?

Strained is a stretch or tear on the tendons. It occurs when a single movement occurs repeatedly. There are two types of strain acute and chronic strain. The symptoms of chronic strain are muscle spasms, weakness, cramping, and immobility. Also, pain, bruising, and swelling are normal symptoms of strain. A symptom of strained occurs after eight to fifteen days.

4. Is Bartonella curable?

Bartonella is a gram-negative intracellular facultative bacterium. It’s also known as Cat scratch disease. It is commonly caused by Bartonella species. Bartonella’s disease is cured by time. The single antimicrobial agent helps to reduced symptoms of the disease. Commonly antimicrobial agents like Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin. Bartonella is treated with oral Doxycycline 100mg for 6
weeks and gentamicin at 3mg/kg/day for 14 days. Bartonella infection can be treated with proper treatment and specific care. Prevention is better than cure Bartonella disease is prevented by wearing long sleeve and using repellents to avoid bites by flies.

5. Is Nocardia fatal?

Nocardia is also known as nacardiosis. Nocardia is bacterial infection cause by Nocardia bacteria. These bacteria attacked on the lungs, brain and skin. The people with low immune system get this bacterial infection. Fever, cough and chest pain are the symptoms of lungs nocardia. Headache, lethargy, confusion seizures and neurological problems are the symptoms of brain nocardia. The outbreak of the nacardiosis is occur in low immunity
people, or people who has connective tissue disorder, malignancy, bone marrow transplantation or organ transplantation (Know more about Organ Transplant), HIV/AIDS. The Diagnosis of nocardia is not so easy. Most of the uncomplicated Nocardia pneumonia is fatal. The fatality rate is increases when infection is increases.

6. Is throat cancer visible?

Throat is a hollow tube behind the nose and roof of mouth attached to the neck. Tobacco or excessive alcohol assumption is the main reason for throat cancer. Treatment of the throat cancer is depends upon the stage of cancer. Early stage cancer is treated with radiation therapy also precision medicine is also helpful to treat the cancer. Identification of stage of cancer is helpful for the treatment of cancer (All you need to know about Cancer). Early stage of cancer is not more than one inch and not spread through the lymph nodes. More than one inch spreading of cancer is local stage, in advance stage cancer cell increases above 3 inch, and metastatic cancer spread at any size. Throat cancer is visible by opening the mouth. Dentist can easily identify throat cancer.

7. What are the three different types of telemedicine?

Telemedicine is field of telecommunication which deals with health care. Telemedicine is helpful to interact with patient by the help of digital technologies. Telemedicine is also helpful in the surgery assistance. We can differentiate telemedicine in three types.
I. Store and forward telemedicine: – In this type of telemedicine is important for sharing health related information like lab report, imaging studies, videos and other record from health care professional to patients. Patient history is remaining safe and confidential. This method is useful for dermatology, ophthalmology and radiology.

II. Remote patient monitoring: – Remote patient monitoring is a process of monitoring patient health and activities by maintaining distance. This methods are useful for the high risk patient and the person who having chronic conditions. For example remote patient monitoring is helpful for tracking glucose level of diabetics.

III. Real-time telemedicine: – Real time telemedicine is video visit of patient with physician. It is popular for primary care urgent care follow up visit and the management of medications and chronic illness. Telehealth mast conducts the insurance portability and accountability act.

8. What are the five signs of emotional suffering?

Now days lots of people suffering from mental health. For identification of meanly ill person, following sign are helpful.
I. Personality changes: – sudden changes in person behavior can identify. Person starts to behave different than his personality. Behavior of person is not fit in their values.
II. Uncharacteristically angry, anxious, agitated, or moody: – Person gets angry on small things and don’t calm down easily. The extreme condition patients are unable to sleep. Person is get too moody and other persons are not able to handle this person.
III. Withdrawal or isolation from the people: – Persons who love to do parties are suddenly stopping parting. Person unable to do the work or schooling. Person avoids the public contact and get introvert.
IV. May neglect self-care and engage in risky behavior: – Person start drinking alcohol and engaged with the self-destructive movement. Person not follows the personal hygiene. Also he gets separated from the love one.
V. Overcome with hopelessness and overwhelmed by circumstances: – People start feel depressed and getting suicidal though in his mind. Also the person thing that he is useless and hopeless and start acting like that.

9. What causes bilharziasis?

Human bilharziasis is caused by S.haematobium, S.mansoni, S japonicum and S. mekongi. This infection is occurring when skin comes in contact with fresh water in which schistosomes infected snails are living. Also when infected people are urinate in water or schistosoma eggs are present in water. Schistosoma parasite penetrates into the skin while bathing swimming or washing the skin from contaminated water. After getting infected the person may develop rash itchy skin. Fever, chills, cough and muscle adults these egg travel though intestine, liver or bladder and cause infection to this organ. This parasite may get damage to the liver, intestine, lungs and bladder.

10. How is Nocardia transmitted?

Nocardiosis is a disease caused by opportunistic pathogen which is Nocardia bacteria. Nocardia bacteria are found in soil and plants. This bacterium is infecting to the people who has weak immune system. Nocardia bacteria spread when someone breathes in dust that contain bacteria .When soil and water carrying bacteria hit into the skin by cut or scrape. When infected person get treatment in the hospital and contaminate the medical equipment
and this used for the other patient transmit the infection to other patient.

11. How do I cure leucoderma?

Leucoderma is skin disorder in which white patches appear on the skin and the kin tends to lose its natural color. Closed patches formed on the skin because of disfigurement of the melanocytes in the body. White patches occur in smaller areas and the spread it all over the body. Skin changes noticeable between the ages 10 to 30 years.

  • Cause: – Leucoderma may be cause by auto-immune disorders like thyroid disorder, or genetic disorder, or may cause by congenital abnormalities like Tuberous Sclerosis, Partial albinism, Waardenenburg syndrome and Piebaldism. It also cause by the traumatic injuries like burn, accidental cuts on skin, Eczema,psoriasis and ulcers.
  • Symptoms: – White patches formation on skin part which is direct exposed to the sunlight, development of grey hair, grey eyelashes, gray beard, loss of color of mucosal membrane, loss of color of retina eyes. Also patient’s shows complications like loss of hearing, sunburns, loss of vision and increase in production of tear.
  • Treatment: – Physician focuses on the improvement of body metabolism which help improve the capability of the affected area. Result of leucoderma treatment is varying from person to person. Commonly medications like creams to improve the skin color and control the inflammation, and medicine for improvement of immunity of patient are used to treat leucoderma. Surgeries like skin grafting, blister grafting, and micropigmentation are useful to treat Leucoderma. Home remedies like application of mustard oil and turmeric oil, honey and margosa oil are helpful. Also yoga helps to build up immunity of the patient.


12. What is the easiest way to get rid of skin bruises?

Bruise is common skin disorder in which discoloration of skin occurs because of blood collection near skin surface due to damage blood cell.

  • Cause: – Bruise occurs when person heat something of something fall on the person. Its commonly occurs to sports persons while playing sports. Also older people common causes bruise because of thin skin also it may cause to the person who has taken blood thinner medicine.
  • Symptoms: – fresh bruise is reddish then it will turn blue to dark purple then yellow or green during healing. Pain occurs but when color get fades pain also goes away.
  • Treatment: – Massage of icepack helpful to heal bruise. Also Acetaminophen is given to relive the pain. There is no specific treatment for the bruise but these remedies helpful to get rid from bruise.


13.What disease is caused by Enterobius Vermicularis?

Enterobius Vermicularis is most common infection in the world. It is also known as Pinworm. This infection occurs only in humans. Pinworm is tiny thread like and whitish structure. Pin like tail is observe in the female worm.

  • Cause: – Pinworm infection transmitted by direct contact with the contaminated things. Also it transfers through the sexual contact. Pinworm infection is usually seen in children. Pinworm infection caused by ingestion of pinworm egg.
  • Symptoms: – itching and scratching, perianal pruritus.
  • Treatment: – Antihelminthic drugs are useful to treat pinworm. The following medication course is given to the time dose Abendazole 400mg empty stomach repeat after 15 days Or one time dose of  Mebendazole 100mg repeated in 15 days.  Young pinworms are resistant to the treatment that’s way two doses of medication is necessary.


14. What are the symptoms of Devic &39; s disease?

Devic disease is inflammatory condition which affect to the spinal cord and optic nerve. The protective covering of nerve calledmyelin. Devic disease attack on the myelin layer hence called Demyelinating disease. This disease affects above 40 year age peoples. There are two different types of Devic disease that is Relapsing NMO and Monophasic MNO. Relapsing MNO is attack of optic nerve and spinal cord for several years and Monophasic MNO is a limited attack for some day or weeks.

  • Symptoms: – Temporary or complete loss of vision, swelling of optic disc, eye pain, reduce sensitivity to color. Sensitivity to temperature, numbness, tingling and sensation of coldness or burning. Weak heavy limb, changes in urination patterns, constipation.
  • Cause: – Exact cause of Devic disease is not confirmed. But it is an autoimmune disorder in which autoimmune mistakenly attack on immune system.
  • Treatment: – Devic disease is difficult to diagnose because of similarities with the other neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other. Blood test, Lumbar puncture test, MRI scans helpful to identify the disease. Devic disease cannot be treated medication help to reduce the symptoms of the disease. Steroids are given to the patient such as injection of methylprednisone follow with oral steroid. The patient who does not respond to the steroid Plasma exchange therapy is given to them. In these therapy blood antibodies which cause the inflammation are remove. To reduce immune activity Azathioprine is given to the patient.



15. What cause black spot under my toenails?

Toenail is made up of keratin protein. Keratin protein makes them rough and resistant to tear and wear. Toenails function is protection of toes. Most of the time physical activity or friction of shoes cause the health problem to the toenails.

  • Causes of black spot:-Most of the injury to toenail is reason of black spot, such as nail stubbing to heard object or falling of heavy object on the toenails. Wearing tight fitting shoes also cause the injury to the toenail. Bacterial infection under nail also causes dark or green spot on toenails. Fungal infection is also one of the reasons for the black spot on toenails. The savior condition is cancer which produces black spot on the toenails.
  • Treatment: – Treatment of toenail blackspot is dependson the reason of black spot. Most of the time black spot on toenails are harmless. Black spot on the toenails due to fungal infection treated with antifungal pills also removal of pain may be recommended. Regular cleaning of feet and drying it, always wear a shoes or sandals on public places, do not share nail cutter and proper management of blood sugar level help to control the back spot on toenails.


16. What is Anti-malaria?

Anti-malaria is drugs which use to treat and prevent malaria. Malaria is serious topical disease spread by mosquitoes.

Symptoms:-Malaria shows symptoms like high temperature, feeling hot and cold, headache, vomiting, muscle pain, diarrhea.  These symptoms are seen with one or two weeks after person get infected.

  • Cause: – Malaria is cause by parasite known as plasmodium. These parasite spread through female anopheles mosquitoes which bite at night. It can also spread through blood transfusion.
  • Treatment: – Anti-malarial drugs are used to treat malaria. Type of medication and length of treatment is depend on the type of malaria, severity of symptoms, you take antimalarial to prevent malaria or not and patient is pregnant. Anti-malarial dugs are classified into three typesaccording to their structure and mode of actions
  1. Aryl amino alcohol compounds: – Quinine, quinidine, choloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquinine, halofantrine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, tafenoquine.
  2. Antifolate compound: – Pyrimethamine, proguani, chlorproguanil, trimethoprim.
  3. Artemisinin compounds: – Atremisinin, dihydroartemisinin, artemether, artesunate

Antimalarial drugs show different pharmacokinetic action. So the doses of antimalarial drugs are varying. Also a different person shows different response to the antimalarial drug because drug response varies because of genetically determination, dietary factors another health conditions. Generally pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drug are similar in children and adults.


17.What are the sign and symptoms of Hantavirus?

Hantavirus is a viral infection cause by rodents. In Americas Hantavirus known as new worlds may cause Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In Europe and Asia found that Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

  • Cause:-Hantavirus is cause by getting in exposure with the saliva and urine of infected rodents.
  • Symptoms: – Early symptoms of Hantavirus are fatigue, fever and pain in thigh hip back and shoulder muscle. Headache, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems like nausea vomiting diarrhea, abdominal pain. After four to ten days symptoms like coughing, shortness of breath, tightness in chest and lungs feels like fluid.
  • Treatment: – Diagnosis of Hantavirus is difficult because its symptoms are same like influenza. Patient with such symptoms immediately concern with physician and tell him about rodent exposure. There is no specific treatment or vaccination for the Hantavirus infection. Infected patient receive the invasive care and intensive care unit. Patient given oxygen therapy to help him reduce respiratory distress. If patient feels full respiratory distress then treatment is not work on that patient.



18. How can Marfan syndrome be prevented?

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder which effects on the connective tissues which support and anchor the human organs to construct the organ system. Generally Marfan syndrome affect to the heart, eyes, blood vessels and skeleton. People with Marfan syndrome are tall with disproportionately long extremities.

  • Symptoms: – Marfan syndrome symptoms are vary from person to person that may include tall and slender build, disproportionately long arm, leg and figures. Breast bone pokes outwards or deep inwards. Heart murmurs, abnormally curved spine, flat feet.
  • Cause: – Marfan syndrome cause by defect in the genetic.
  • Diagnosis: – Connective tissue disorder and Marfan syndrome have same sign and symptoms and same family so it’s difficult to diagnose Marfan syndrome. To identify the Marfan syndrome ECG, CT, MRI may be helpful also eye exam like slit lamp test and eye pressure test also conducted. Genetic testing is rarely used to diagnose the Marfan syndrome.
  • Treatment: – Treatment is not available to cure the Marfan syndrome. So physician focus on prevention of complications of disease. Physician prescribed blood pressure lowering drug to prevent enlargement of aorta. Vision problem can cure with corrected glasses or lenses. Surgical procedures like Aortic repair, Scoliosis treatment, breastbone correction and eye surgeries also conducted. Providing emotional and practical support to such patient is important for survival of the patient.


19. What is the significance of liver echotexture?

Coarsened echotexture is ultrasound image which is taken to identify the liver abnormality or excessive fat saturation in the liver. Liver echotexture is helpful to identify the conditions like hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis, choledochal cysts, bile duct tumors, hepatic lymphoma, hepatic leukemia, small multiple biliary hamartomas or sickle cell disease, metabolic abnormalities like hepatic amyloidosis and glycogen storage disease.


20. What causes dacryocystitis?

Dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the nasolacrimal sac. Dacryocystitis infection may be acute or chronic and congenital or acquired. Dacryocystitis is located below the canthal tendon.

  • Cause: – dacryocystitis infection cause by blockage of lacrimal duct which allows bacterial growth inside the tear sac. Injury to nose or eye, nasal polyps, sinus inflammation, nasal surgery, foreign object in duct and cancer also causes dacryocystitis.
  • Symptoms: – pain redness and swelling on inside of eye, watery eye, swelling on nose side corner of eye. Pus formation on eye corner, fever on chronic condition teary discharge with little swelling is seen.
  • Diagnosis:-diagnosis of dacryocystitis is carried out on the base on symptoms and examination of eye, also CT scan of eye is conducted to see cause of blockage
  • Prevention: – To prevent dacryocystitis infection dacryocystorhinostomy is conducted. Also regularly drain the tear sac also helpful in prevention of tear duct infection.

21. Chest X-ray

X-ray is a medical test conducted by using radiograph. Chest X-ray performed to study heart, lungs, blood vessels and bones present in chest cavity. X-ray is oldest and mostly used technique to identify the abnormalities within the body.

  • Uses:-Chest X-ray is helpful to diagnose the symptoms like difficulty in breath, continuous cough, chest pain, chest injury, fever. Also chest x-ray helpful in the diagnosis the treatment pneumonia, heart failure, emphysema, lung cancer, position of medical device, fluid collection around the lung, or other medical condition.
  • Procedure: – Radiologist asks the patient to remove all metallic accessories and wear loose cloths. Pregnant woman must have to tell about their pregnancy to doctor before doing x-ray procedure. X-ray radiation form radio wave, the radio wave pass through the body and record the image on photographic frame. Most of the X ray-chest two views are taken for that radiologist ask patient to stand against the recording plate and then patient chest press against the image plate. Radiologist ask patient to hold the breath for few second white taking X-ray. Chest X-ray is not more than 20 minute procedure.


22. 12- Lead ECG

12 lead ECG records the heart activity. On the body surface heart activity is trace by using electrodes. EGC machine and the leads are two components which help to record the activity. In the 12 lead ECG placement the Placement of standardizes electrode is important to take accurate results.

  • Procedure: – Specialist cleans the patient skin properly, and sure skin is clean and dry. Specialist wipes the skin by alcohol wipe and places the electrodes. Patient must have to relax to stop the muscular tension which may interpret in the ECG recording. Patient’s chest and all four limbs should be exposed by the electrodes. Most of the time specialist use clavicular method for the ECG placement.

23. Catheterized angiography

Angiography is carried out in radiology department. Catheter angiography conducted by using Catheter. Use of catheter in the angiography help to combined diagnosis and treatment together. The clear and accurate images obtained by catheter angiography my reduced the need of surgery. Catheter is thin plastic tube which inserted into body by making small insertion in the body. The ECG electrodes may be place in the following position.

V1(C1) Fourth intercostal space at the right sternal border
V2(C2) Fourth intercostal space at the left sternal border



Halfway between leads V2 and V4


V4(C4) Fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line
V5(C5) Left anterior axillary line on the same horizontal plane as V4
V6(C6) Left midaxillary line on the same horizontal plane as v4 and v5
RA(R) Right arm (Inner wrist)
LA(L) Left arm (inner wrist)
RL(N) Right leg (inner ankle)
LL (F) Left leg (inner ankle)


V4 lead is place below the breast tissue in woman because breast tissue may impact on the ECG amplitude. Chest must be cover up with blanket to avoid exposed. ECG electrodes should be removed when there is no requirement of ECG.

  • Uses: – Catheter angiography is useful to study the blood vessels in the body organs like brain, neck, heart, chest, abdomen, pelvis, legs and feet, arms and hands. Also physician help to identify abdominal aortic aneurysm, abnormalities present in the chest. Detection of plaque in the carotid artery, it is also helpful in the kidney transplant procedure or stent placement procedure. It is helpful to identify the injuries happen in the arteries. To study the dissection of aorta.
  • Procedure: – Patient must have to inform the physician about their medication which being taken. Patient asks to wear loose cloths and remove all jewelry and metallic accessories. Pregnant woman must tell about her pregnancy to the physician. Also breastfeeding woman must have to ask physician about the procedure to avoid absorption of contrast material into breast milk. Patient must have to take a fast for 10 hours before exam. Technologist will insert IV line into small vein in arm. Small blood drops are removed before starting the procedure. The area of catheter insertion is must be clean and sterilized with local anesthetic. Technologists make small insertion and insert the catheter into the artery. When catheter is reached to the final destination then numbers of x-rays are taken. Then catheter is removed and incision area is closed by aping pressure for 15 minutes.

24. Artificial pacemakers

Pacemaker is battery operated devised used to correct irregular breathing of heart. Pacemaker is approximately 30 gram in weight having two parts one is generator with battery to control heart beat and another are leads which contain wires which connect heart and generator. Pacemaker is implant under the skin. Implantation of pacemaker is carried out in 60 minutes. Two types of pacemakers are used one is transcutaneous pacemakers and transvenous pacemakers.

  • Uses: – Artificial pacemakers are useful in the severe heart failure, bradycardia, and trachycardia.
  • Procedure: – Patient must have to tell about their medication to the physician before surgery. The day before surgery physician may ask to clean your body with special soap. The patient must have to take care to do not swallow anything for six hours before surgery. Small incision is made below the collarbone for the placement of pacemaker. By using live X-rays physician put leads into the incision into the veins it transfer into the heart. These leads connected to the generator. Incision closed with the stiches. Placement of artificial pacemaker is one day procedure.

25. Implantable defibrillators

Implantable defibrillators are small battery device which help in regulation of heart rhythm. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is help to control the cardiac rhythm and irregular heartbeats.

  • Uses: – Implantable defibrillators helpful in the cardiac arrest, heart failure, ventricular trachycardia, and arrhythmias.
  • Procedure: – Doctors do various diagnostic tests to understand need to defibrillators implantation. The diagnostic tests like Electrocardiography, Echocardiography are performed. Before surgery patient ask to do not eat or drink anything for eight hours. The surgeon gives general anesthesia to the patient before starting surgery. One or more flexible wires are inserted into the veins near to the collar bone by the help of small insertion. By the help of live x-ray leads are secured into the heart and another end is secured to the generator. These is procedure may take long for few hours. After placement of defibrillator doctor check heart rhythm problem. After the procedure done patient should not move his left hand and shoulder for 15-20 days, it helpful in proper healing of leads.

26. Genetic screening

Genetic screening is application of test on the people for detection of genetic disease. For the genetic screening Approval of the patient family is necessary. Also study of family history is also necessary. Genetic counseling is necessary for the patient and patient family.  A complete cardiogenetic evaluation is necessary for confirmation of diagnosis. Detail and accurate format of patient and patient family is necessary.  Genetic screening is a public program, which help the people to prevent or early treatment of hereditary diseases .Genetic screening is secondary prevention strategy which help to identify the disease before starting symptoms. Genetic screening program is dividing into three types.

  1. Preconception screening: – This type of screening carried out before having a children.
  2. Prenatal screening: – This type of screening is conducted during pregnancy.
  3. Newborn screening: – this type of study is conducted after child birth.

27. Back X-ray( Spine X-ray)

Detailed examination of back bones and spine are conducted by using back X-ray. In the Back X-ray Separate images of cervical thoracic and spine are taken.

  • Uses: – spine X-ray is conducted to study the back injury. Also it is helpful in diagnosis of the fractures, tumors, Arthritis, Disc problem, deformities in the curved of spine, osteoporosis, or bone infection.
  • Procedure: – Patients ask to remove all the accessories and wear loose cloths. Pregnant woman must have to tell her doctor about pregnancy before procedure, also patient must have to tell the doctor if he is using insulin pump. Radiologist positioned the body against the x-ray films. X-ray of upper and lower spine is taken on while lying down on the table. For the cervical x ray radiologist may ask patient for open up the mouth. X ray is painless imaging technique.

28. Barium Enema

Barium Enema Exam is conducted to study abnormalities in intestine. Barium enema procedure is also called colon x-ray. Liquid injection is injected in the rectum by the help of small tube. Barium enema process is better than normal X-ray. Barium enema gives clear images of colon.

  • Uses: – Barium enema is helpful in the detection of polyps and inflammatory bowel disease. If patient shows symptoms like groin pain, rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, unexpected weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and persistent constipation doctors may suggest to do the barium enema.
  • Procedure: – Before one day of examination physician ask patient to empty colon. Doctor may ask you to take clear liquid the day before exam, and do not eat or drink anything after midnight before exam. Laxative is helpful to emptying the colon, the use of enema kit the few hours before exam help to remove the entire residue from the colon. Barium enema test is not conducted in the pregnancy. Patient must have to tell about their medication to the doctor before exam. Patient asks to wear a gown and remove all the metallic accessories. Patient asks to lie down on the examination table. For the confirmation of cleaning of colon X-ray is taken. Lubricant is apply on the enema tube and it insert into the rectum. Connected barium bag deliver the barium solution into the colon. If double contrast test is performed the air is pump through the same tube. Barium balloon helps to put barium inside the body, it may cause abdominal cramping. Patient may ask to hold to change the position of body for the full coating formation. The entire coating helps to evaluate all parts of the colon. Most of the barium is removing from the enema tube. White stool remove the all barium present in the body.

29. Barium Swallow

Barium swallow test is conducted to take close look of mouth and throat and esophagus. Barium swallow test is helpful in the diagnosis of abnormalities present in pharynx, esophagus, stomach or duodenum. Barium is chalky white substance with mixed with water this mixture is look like milkshake. Barium swallow milkshake form a coat inside the upper GI track.

  • Uses: – Barium swallow is helpful in the diagnosis of hiatal hernia, inflammation of GI track, blockages in GI track, Muscle disorder, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, ulcers, cancerous tumor and non- cancerous tumor.
  • Procedure: – Specialist asks to take a fast for six hours before exam. Patient must avoid the drinking and eating any liquid. Patient must have to tell his medical history to the specialist. It helps specialist to decide direction of study. Patient having medical conditions like bowel perforation, bowel obstruction, difficulty in swallowing, severe constipation should not conduct barium swallow test it may increase the complication. Barium swallow test is no longer than half hour. Specialist asks you to remove all the metallic accessories and wear median gown. Then specialist ask patient toile down on the table and move the body at certain position to take a standard x-rays. Then specialist give a barium drink to swallow and take single x- rays or a series of x-rays or fluoroscopy to watch movement of barium through pharynx. When exam is complete you patient allow taking normal diet and normal activities.

30. Biofeedback

Biofeedback is a therapy which is useful to get control in involuntary functions. Biofeedback gives relaxation to the body, which help to cure number of conditions.

  • Uses: – biofeedback therapy is helpful in the treatment of migraine headache, chronic pain, incontinence, high blood pressure.
  • Procedure: – In the biofeedback session electrodes get attached to the patient skin. Figure sensors also used if necessary. Skin attached electrodes passed the signals to the monitor which shows flashlight signals of heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, sweating or muscle activity. The any changes occur in the heart rate and muscle activities due to stress get recorded by monitor. Therapist help to practice relaxation and control the body functions. In biofeedback session relaxation exercise like deep breathing, muscle relaxation, mind relaxation therapy, mediation therapy is also conducted.

31. Biopsy

Biopsy is a process in which sample of body tissue is taken from the body to examination.

  • Uses: – Biopsy is carried out when physician seen abnormal growth of tissues in the body and physician have doubt of cancer, melanoma or other abnormalities.
  • Types of biopsies: – The following types of biopsies are carried out.
  1. Needle biopsy: – In needle biopsy needle is used to reach the suspicious tissue.
  2. CT-guided biopsy: – In CT guided biopsy CT scanner is used to detect the position of needle.
  3. Ultrasound-guided biopsy: – Ultrasound guided scanner is used to direct the needle into the lesion.
  4. Bone biopsy: – Bone biopsy id used for the bone cancer. Bone biopsy is carried out by orthopedic surgeon.
  5. Bone marrow biopsy: – The needle is used to enter the pelvis bone for collection of bone marrow. This biopsy is helpful to detect leukemia or lymphoma.
  6. Liver biopsy: – Needle is injected to the liver through the belly to capture the liver tissue.
  7. Kidney biopsy: – Needle inserted through back in the kidney.
  8. Aspiration biopsy: – A needle used to withdraw material out of mass, this procedure is known as fine needle aspiration.
  9. Prostate Biopsy: – Multiple needle biopsies are taken at one time from prostate gland.
  10. Skin Biopsy: – A Punch biopsy is main method of biopsy in this cylindrical shape skin tissue are collected.
  11. Surgical biopsy: – For the laparoscopic surgery it is necessary to obtain the biopsy of heard tissue.

32. Biopsy of the prostate

Prostate part is situated below the bladder and in front of rectum. Prostate is walnut shaped gland produces semen fluids and sperms in the testicles. Prostate biopsy is conducted to remove small samples from samples for cancer testing.

  • Procedure: – Prostate biopsy is a ten minute procedure. In this specialist insert needle through the wall of rectum into the prostate gland. Needle help to extract the cell for testing. After the procedure patient may notice blood in the pee or light bleeding from the bottom, or blood in the semen for one or two months. The collected tissue sample is tested in the lab.

33. Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound is carried out for the evaluation of prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound is useful for the detection of cancer of colon.

  • Procedure: – For the Transrectal ultrasound, rectum emptying is more important. For rectum emptying specialist suggest patient to take suppository. Also patient counseling about the Transrectal ultrasound is done by the specialist before the exam. Specialist asks patient to put the body in the decubitus position in which knees are tucked with the chest. Then specialist inspects the area skin condition, and then insert the transducer which is cover with the get contain plastic sheath. Then insert the transducer slowly through the anus. When prostate is visible specialist stop applying the pressure.

34. Blood testing

Blood testing is a part of standard healthcare. It helps to diagnose the specific conditions.

  • Types: – The physician suggests the following types of blood test.
  1. Complete blood count:- In these blood test the variety of blood component like red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit are identify. Complete blood count is helpful to identify disorders like anemia, blood clotting problem, inflammation, infection, or immune system disorder.
  2. Blood enzyme test: – Blood enzyme test is useful to detect the enzyme level in the body. This test is use for the identification of heart attack.
  3. Blood clotting test: – blood clotting test is help to identify the blood clotting disorders.
  4. Lipoprotein panel: – Lipoprotein panel is helpful to get information about low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglycerides level in the blood.
  5. Basic metabolic panel: – Basic metabolic panel helpful for the identification of compound present in the blood plasma. It gives information about bones, muscles and organs. Blood metabolic panel give information about calcium level present in the body, glucose level, presence of waste product in the blood and electrolyte.

35. Bone Density Test

Bone density test is useful to detect osteoporosis. Bone density test is carried out by using x- rays. Hip bone, spine, and sometimes forearm bone is tested most of the time. Osteoporosis is happen because of past broken bone or weak bone.

  • Uses: – Bone density test is helpful for the identification of bone density before break the bone, and risk of bone fracture, confirmation of osteoporosis, and monitoring the treatment of osteoporosis. Doctor also recommended bone density test if persons having conditions like approximate 4cm lost in the height is seen it may happen because of spine fracture. Doctor suspect fragility fractures in the bone. If person having long term steroid medication. After menopause woman shows lowered sex hormone it may weaken the bone. The people who received the bone marrow transplant have highest risk of osteoporosis.
  • Procedure: – Patient must have to give knowledge to the doctor if he recently conduct barium exam. Patient must have to avoid taking calcium supplement before 24 hours. Patient asks to wear loose cloths and remove metallic accessories. Patient asks to lie down on the table and the mechanical arm of machine passes from the body. Small portable machine cover the small area like figure, wrist, heel. This procedure requires not more than half hour.

36. Bone marrow biopsy

Bone marrow is soft tissue present inside the bone which helps to produce RBC, WBC, platelets, fat, cartilages and bone. Two types of bone marrow present in the bone that is red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. Red bone marrow finds in the flat bone and red bone marrow change color to yellow because of increase of fat cell. For the bone marrow biopsy specialist extract red bone marrow.

  • Uses: – Doctor suggests bone marrow biopsy when patient blood test shows anemia, bone marrow disease, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow cancer, hemochromatosis, infection or fever from unknown origin.
  • Procedure: – Patient must have to tell doctor about medical history, recent medical situation and medical supplement which he takes. Patient must have to follow doctor instruction. Generally bone marrow biopsy is conducted by oncologist. Before starting procedure specialist asks patient to wear hospital gown and sit on the table. Specialist check heart rate, blood pressure. Then specialist tell patient to lie on stomach. Then he applies the local anesthetic to the skin and biopsy will be carried out. Bone marrow biopsy is mostly conducted on hipbone or the chest bone. If patient feels symptoms like excess bleeding, increase pain, swelling, drainage or fever after biopsy, then he must have to contact with the specialist.

37. Abdominal CT scan

CT scan is computed tomography scan. It is special form of X-ray helpful in detection of cross sectional images of body. Body enters into the circular machine and images taken by machine send to the computer. These images viewed by technician. Abdominal CT scan is helpful to do study of organs, blood vessels and bone in abdominal cavity. It is possible to take multiple images by CT scan by different views. Abdominal abnormalities are detected by CT scan. When physician seen symptoms like groin pain, abdominal mass, kidney stones, unexpected weight loss, appendicitis or other infection, intestine inflammation, crohn’s disease, injuries due do fall, or abdominal cancer suspected patient physician suggest doing CT scan of abdomen.

  • Procedure: – Physician suggests to the patient not to eat for four hours before scan, and do not take any medication before scan. Patient must have to wear loose cloths. Patient has to remove all metallic accessories and electronic things like headphones, mobile etc. CT scan performed with or without contrast. According to the reason of doing CT scan physician decide which CT is performed. If Physician decides to do with contrast then large amount of liquid contained barium is given to patient orally. After drinking liquid patient lie down on the procedure table on the specific position. Technician may use pillow or cover for the adjustment of body in correct position. Patient must have to hold the breath during part of scan. Using remote control technician move the table into CT scan machine. After taking number of scan technician reviews images to sure it will be clear. The overall procedure is about to 10-15 minutes.
  • Precaution: – Before going to the CT scan patient must have share all details about his health like allergies, diabetes, or pregnancy.

38. Abdominal Ultrasound

Ultrasound imaging is carried out using sound wave to produced picture of the structure within the organ. Ultrasound is safe procedure to evaluate the organs. Abdominal ultrasound is conducted to study kidney, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, spleen and abdominal aorta. Ultrasound is also known as sonography. Ultrasound carried out using transducer and gel. Gel is spread on the skin to carried ultrasound it may get skin dirty.

  • Uses: – Ultrasound abdomen is carried out to do complete study abnormalities in the kidney, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, spleen, abdominal aorta. Also it is useful for the abdominal pain abnormal liver function test, enlarge abdominal organ, kidney cyst, kidney stone, gallstone, abdominal aortic aneurysm. Abdominal ultrasound is useful for guidance of surgeries like biopsies, blood clots, narrowing of vessels, tumors, abnormal flow of testes and ovary.
  • Procedure: – For ultrasound study patient must have to wear loose cloths. Patients may have to remove all jewelry and cloths for examination area. Preparation of ultrasound is depend upon type of ultrasound. For the study of liver, gallbladder, spleen and pancreas patient ask to eat fat free meal. For the study of kidneys patient ask to drink one liter water before test. For Ultrasound of the aorta patient must do fast for 12 hours. Ultrasound scanner contain computer console, video display screen with attached transducer. The transducer made up high frequency sound waves into the body with help to developed images. Ultrasound abdomen is carried out in 30 minute.
  • Benefits: – Ultrasound doesn’t need needle or injection. Ultrasound easy to use and less expensive method. Also it is painless and safe examination. Clear images are helpful to identify the soft tissue.

39. Abortion ( termination of pregnancy)

Abortion is a termination of pregnancy by taking medicine or by surgical procedure. Abortion is carries out before third trimester. Mostly abortion is carried out when child growth with severe disability or mother have risk of life. Abortion is safe procedure but this may cause some complications like infection of womb, excessive bleeding, and damage to the womb. Abortion is carried out medical and surgical treatment.

  1. Medical abortion: – Medical abortion is easy process of abortion. Medical abortion is carried out by taking pills. There are two types of pills available. Abortion pills use up to 10 weeks. These medicines helpful for the early termination of pregnancy. Abortion pills from 10 weeks to 24 weeks helpful for push out the pregnancy. It may require two clinic visit and second visit may require one night stay in hospital.
  2. Surgical abortion: – Surgical abortion is quick procedure. It may perform by two types. First one vacuum aspiration up to 15 weeks it conduct pregnancy by suction. Abortion is carried out within 14 weeks of pregnancy. It is conducted in one visit to clinic. Dilation and evacuation between 15 and 24 weeks it is carried out with general anesthesia. It is one day procedure.

40. Acupuncture

Acupuncture is ancient technique used to treat various conditions by triggering specific points on skin with the help of needle. This method is helpful in the improvement of functions of the body. Small injuries cause by needle may feel some discomfort. Acupuncture is helpful in the treatment like severe headache, allergies, depression, bone disorders like osteoarthritis, severe pain in neck back and knees, hypertension, insomnia, menstrual cramps, migraines, morning sickness, sprains and strokes. Also acupuncture is helpful in treatment of cancer and multiple sclerosis. The acupuncture session is carried out within one hour to ninety minutes. Acupuncture treatment gives different experiences to individuals some people feel depress and most of the population feel happy after acupuncture.

  • Procedure: – Acupuncture is can conduct by various styles. Selection of acupuncturist is important for the treatment. Acupuncturist examined the painful part of the body, texture and color of tongue, face color, pulse rate and strength of wrist. Points of acupuncture are spread all over the body. Acupuncturists plan the treatment and may ask to remove your clothes for the treatment. Acupuncturists insert the needles to various depths and points, insertion may cause little pain. Acupuncturists may move or twirl the needle after placement. After 10 to 20 minutes needles are remove, removal of needles don’t feel any pain. Results of procedure are seen after few weeks.

41. Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is a process of removal of amniotic fluids from uterus for testing. Amniotic fluids help to protect and provide proteins to the child during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid is removing for the study of child health, but amniocentesis is a risky procedure. Amniocentesis is carried out for the various reasons. Amniocentesis is carried out for testing genetic conditions like Down syndrome, fetal lung maturity testing is also carried out by the help of amniocentesis. This procedure is also helpful to identify the baby’s health. When mother saturates too much amniotic fluids during pregnancy amniocentesis is help to remove excessive drainage. Also it is helpful to collect fetus DNA for the comparison with father DNA for the confirmation of paternity.

  • Procedure: – Amniocentesis procedure is conducted before 20 weeks of pregnancy. Before starting the procedure specialist suggest to drinks liquid. Before starting Amniocentesis sonography is conducted to find exact location of fetus in uterus. After identifying the fetus location specialist clean the abdomen by antiseptic, and then insert thin hollow needle through abdominal wall into uterus, and small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn into the syringe. After the procedure specialist check heart rate by using ultrasound. Loss of vaginal bleeding, uterine cramp, fever, redness or inflammation on side of needle insertion or abnormal fetal activity is seen the immediate concern with your doctor.

42. Anoscopy

Anoscopy is a procedure performs by the help of anoscope for the identification of abnormalities present in gastrointestinal track. Anoscope is made of plastic or stainless steel. It helps to study detail about tissues present in rectal and anal area. Anoscopy procedure is helpful to study abnormalities in lower parts of intestine.

  • Procedure: – Before starting the procedure bladder and bowel emptying is necessary. Anoscope is 5 inches long and two inches wide hollow tube equipped with light. Doctors insert anoscope with lubricated jelly into GI track from anus. After insertion doctor ask to boost muscles. After examine the area doctor remove the anoscope.

43. Bone marrow transplant

Bone marrow transplant is surgical procedure which performed for replacement of bone marrow. Bone marrow is soft fatty tissue present inside the bones. Bone marrow helps to create red blood cell, white blood cells and platelets. Bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells. These hematopoietic cells are helpful in formation of new blood cells. Bone marrow transplant is carried out when persons are unable to function properly. Also it is conducted when body shows disorders like aplastic anemia, leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Bone marrow transplant shows various complications because of age, unhealthy body, and life threating disease. The short term complication like low blood pressure, headache, and nausea, shortness of breath, cold and fever are seen after bone marrow transplants. There are two type of bone marrow transplants are available that is Allogeneic transplant and Autologous transplant.

  1. Autologous transplant: – Autologous transplant is carried out by using persons own stem cell. In this process harvesting of the stem cell is carried out before beginning of damaging. Damage is control by chemotherapy and then return harvested stem cell in the body.
  2. Allogeneic transplant: – Allogeneic transplant is carried out by using donor stem cells. which shows closer genetic match. It is best way for bone marrow transplant.
  • Procedure: – Expert perform necessary test to understand which type of bone marrow transplant is conducted. All damage cells are treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Then harvested or obtained from donor stem cells are transplant into the body.

44. Bone scan

Bone scan is conducted for the diagnosis of bone problems by the help of radioactive drug. Bone scan is helpful to understand problem related to the bone metabolism.

  • Procedure: – Radioactive substance is injected into vein which taken by the bone. After observation of some hours. After one to three hour doctor start taking imaging. The radioactive substance helpful to identify the damage by collecting the spots. Inserted radioactive substances are harmless to the body and easily remove from body after three to four days.
  • Uses: – Bone scan is helpful to identify abnormalities in bone. Also it is helpful to identify the breakage of bone. Also identification of bone cancer is easy with the help of bone scan. Also it is helpful in the conditions like arthritis, avascular necrosis, fibrous dysplasia, bone infection Paget’s disease of bone.

45. Breast ultrasound

Breast ultrasound is use to study the internal structure of breast. Breast ultrasound is useful to identify abnormalities present in the breast like lumps, cyst or nodules.

  • Uses: – Breast ultrasound is useful to detect breast abnormality. It is helpful in the study breast cancer screening. Also it is use for guidance in breast biopsy procedure.
  • Procedure: – Patient asks to remove all the metallic accessories and wear loose cloths.

The sonographer applies warm gel on body. Then sonographer place transducer and take images. Breast ultrasound is carried out in 30 minute.  It is painless procedure do not need insertion of needles.

46. Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy test is useful in the diagnosis of lung disease.  Bronchoscope is use to conduct the bronchoscopy.

  • Uses: – Bronchoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of lung disease, lung tumor chronic cough and lung infection.
  • Procedure: – Local anesthetic spray is spread to nose and throat and give sedative to feel relax while processing bronchoscopy. Doctor suggests avoiding eating or drinking for 6-12 hours before procedure is started. Also doctor may ask to stop the medication before surgery. Doctor inserted bronchoscope which passes down into throat and the bronchi. For collection of samples brush or needles are attached to the bronchoscope. When doctor finished the examination they remove the bronchoscope. Bronchoscopy is not more than 30 minute procedure.
  • Risk factors: – bronchoscopy may shows risk like Bleeding, lung infection, trouble breathing, and low blood pressure. Also fever, blood in cough, breathing problems may cause because of bronchoscopy. If any of these problems are seen then patient must concern with the doctor.  

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