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Syphilis: Signs and Symptoms

Syphilis: Signs and Symptoms

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum.

Symptoms develop stagewise and the stages are:

  1. PRIMARY SYPHILIS: The primary lesion occurs as the spirochete (T. pallidum) the body. It usually heals on its own, within 4-8 weeks, even in the absence of proper treatment.
  1. SECONDARY SYPHILIS: This stage begins 6-8 weeks after the appearance of the primary lesion. It presents non-itchy rashes on the palms and soles.
  1. LATENT SYPHILIS: With time, the stage of secondary syphilis is replaced by a latent period.
  1. TERTIARY SYPHILIS: This stage usually takes 3-10 years or more to develop after the primary infection. It affects the skin, mucosa, bone, and joints.
  1. QUATERNARY SYPHILIS It affects the heart and the nervous system. It is extremely rare.

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Syphilis: Signs and Symptoms

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Types of Mental Disorder

Types of Mental Disorders

Mental ailment is not one’s personal failure. It can happen to anyone and with the fast-paced lifestyle, the people having mental health ailments have increased significantly.

Types of Mental Disorder:

  • Mood disorder like depression or bipolar disorder
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Personality Disorder
  • Eating disorder
  • A psychotic disorder like schizophrenia
  • Substance abuse disorder
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

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Schizophrenia: Complications

Complications of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a word derived from two Greek words, schizein, to divide and phren, mind which together means to divide the mind.

Complications:

  • Suicidal tendency
  • Self-injury
  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Abuse of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco
  • Inability to perform any work or studies
  • Social isolation
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Difficulty to stay in a relationship
  • Can get involved in violent crimes
  • Lack of personal hygiene causing other complications
  • Being victimized

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Schizophrenia: Complications

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Macular Degeneration: Types

Macular degeneration: A common Chronic Eye Disorder

Macular degeneration is a common chronic eye disorder that causes blurred or reduced central vision or a blind spot in your visual field due to the thinning of the macula.

Types of Macular Degeneration include:

  1. Dry macular degeneration: it is the most common type (90% of cases). It causes mild to a moderate gradual loss of vision over many years. It may first develop in one eye and then affect both. Over time the vision may worsen and affect the ability to do day to day activities such as read, drive and recognize faces.
  2. Wet macular degeneration: It is the less common type but associated with a rapidly progressive loss of vision. Central vision may be completely lost within a few weeks. The wet type always starts in the beginning as a dry type.

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Macular Degeneration: Types

 

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Types of Catheter

Types of Catheter: Indwelling Catheters| External Catheter | Intermittent Catheter

 

A catheter is a thin flexible tube used to empty the bladder. If the bladder isn’t emptied, urine gets collected leads to the pressure on the kidney and can cause kidney damage.

Types of Catheter

  1. Indwelling Catheters/ Foley catheter

This type of catheter has to be inserted into the bladder through the urethra or tiny hole in the abdomen. A tiny water-filled balloon at the end of the catheter prevents the tube from sliding out of the body.

Examples: urethral or suprapubic catheters

  1. External Catheter

Patients who don’t have a urinary problem, but are facing from dementia can use External Catheter. As the name suggests external, they are placed outside the body. It is a condom-like device that covers the penis head. It has lower risk as compared to Indwelling catheters. But they need to be changed daily.

Example: Condom Catheter

  1. Intermittent Catheter

Post-surgery when the patient’s bladder is not performing well it can be emptied using this short term catheter. After the bladder starts performing catheter has to be removed.

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Types of Catheter

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Types of Scar

A scar is a mark left on the skin while and aftTypes of Scarer a wound heals because of the replacement of the normal skin tissues with fibrous tissues.

Scars are of different types including:

  • Keloids scar: An exuberant scar that appears at the site of an injury and spreads beyond the borders of the original lesion. The Keloid scar is a mass of collagen fibers and fibroblasts. This type of scar has a shiny surface with a rubbery consistency. This type of scar is usually found on the shoulders, chest, and back.
  • Contracture or cicatricial scar: Scar causing many contractions. This type of scar tightens the muscles making it impossible or in some cases very difficult to move. Contracture scars may sometimes be deep-seated sometimes even affecting muscles and nerves. This type of scars is usually seen in burn cases.
  • Hypertrophic scar: This type of scarred and are raised just like keloid scar but they tend to spread beyond their borders.
  • Painful scar: In this type of scar nerves are also involved causing pain during healing. The nerve endings sometimes become bulbous. This condition is treated either by dissecting the scar or excising the nerve.
  • Acne scar: This type of scar is usually present in people who had a severe outburst of acne. These scars can either be a deep pit, angular or wavelike.
  • Stretch marks: They are also a form of scar caused due to stretching of the skin rapidly. Usually seen in pregnancy or during teenage when there is a growth spurt or during weight gain. However, these scars begin to fade after a few years.
  • Umbilical scar
  • Atrophic scar: This type of scar occurs in cases where the structures that lie beneath the skin such as fats or muscles are lost.

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Eczema or itchy red rashes: Causes

Eczema is a generalized term used in cases of itchy red rashes that initially extrude or oozes serum which later forms a crust or thickened or sometimes gets scaly.

causes:

  • Environmental factors
  • Allergens like dust, pollen, mold or dandruff
  • Irritants like shampoo, soap, disinfectant, juices, vegetables, fruits, etc.
  • Microbes certain bacteria, virus or fungus
  • Hot and cold temperature
  • Stress can make symptoms worse
  • Hormones in women: eczema develops due to hormonal changes during pregnancy or during a certain time of the menstrual cycle
  • Certain food like dairy products, nuts, eggs, soy products or wheat

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Eczema or itchy red rashes: Causes

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Covid: Signs and Symptoms

Common human coronaviruses are known to cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold.

These illnesses only last over a short amount of time. Symptoms may include:

  • headache
  • fever
  • running nose
  • sore throat
  • cough
  • a general feeling of being unwell

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Covid: Signs and Symptoms

 

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Bipolar Disorder: Risk Factors

Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness that has prominent mood swings. The mood swings are usually very extreme cases of sadness to elevated mood.

Risk factors of Bipolar Disorder include:

  • Studies reveal that the brain structure and function of people having bipolar disorder is different than healthy people or people suffering from other mental ailments.
  • Bipolar disorder is seen to run in the family.
  • Substance abuse may be alcohol or drugs or both.
  • Stressful life.
  • Loss of a loved one.

Read more at Bipolar Disorder

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Vitiligo: a Skin Disorder with Milky-white Patches

Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder that causes patchy loss of skin pigmentation. Vitiligo may start at any age but often appears before the age of 20 years. This condition can affect any part of your body, commonly involving the hands and feet.

Symptoms of Vitiligo include:

  • The most important manifestation involves patchy loss of skin color, which is usually bilateral and symmetrical.
  • Depigmentation initially affects the sun-exposed areas, such as the hands, feet, arms, face and lips.
  • The white patches may at times, have a hyperpigmented border and scalloped margins.
  • Depigmentation of hair (on your scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard) is called as leucotrichia, and is a poor prognostic factor.
  • Discoloration may involve the inside of your mouth and nose (mucous membranes), and even the inner layer of the eyeball (retina).

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Vitiligo: a Skin Disorder with Milky-white Patches

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Thalassemia: Signs and Symptoms

Thalassemia is an inherited impairment of hemoglobin production. It is a blood disorder characterized by less hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells in the blood than normal.

Signs and Symptoms include:

  • Weakness, fatigue, and malaise
  • Pallor
  • Deformities of facial bones
  • Slow growth
  • Urine is dark and concentrated
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Massive bone marrow expansion occurs which leads to the development of chipmunk facies in children, thinning and pathological fracture of long bones and vertebrae.

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Thalassemia: Signs and Symptoms

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Precision Medicine

Precision medicine is a new approach to medical science in which a specially tailored medicine is administered to the patients taking consideration of various factors like age, environment, family, etc.

Advantages of precision medicine

• Increases the chances of a doctor to use the patient’s genetic and molecular information.
• Enhances the ability to predict the best treatment for a specific patient
• It improves the ability to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease.
• It helps in preventing, diagnosing and treating a range of diseases.

Disadvantages of precision medicine
• Huge data needs to be collected from the patient
• The patient has to be aware of the family history
• Time-consuming

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Precision Medicine

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Schizophrenia: Hallucinating Mental Disorder

Schizophrenia is a word derived from two Greek words, schizein, to divide and phren, mind which together means to divide the mind.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia include:

  • Delusions or false beliefs that are not real
  • Hallucinations which mainly involves seeing or hearing things that do not exist
  • Disorganized and distorted speech and thoughts
  • Unpredictable agitation
  • Social withdrawal
  • Dysfunction in interpersonal relations, at work or education and sometimes even healthcare.
  • Anhedonia or inability to feel pleasure.
  • Abnormal psychomotor activity
  • Confusion
  • Loss of insight
  • Depersonalization
  • Slow reaction time
  • Some people drink an excessive amount of water.
  • Withdrawal from family and friends.
  • Lack of motivation
  • Difficulty in sleeping.
  • Irritable or depressed, sometimes both.

Read more about Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia: Hallucinating Mental Disorder

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Symptoms of Depression

Depression is one of the leading types of mental illness where there is a constant feeling of sadness that prevails for weeks or months.

The symptoms of depression include:

  • Sadness for more than two weeks.
  • Change in appetite
  • Change in sleep pattern
  • Indecisive
  • Anxious
  • Worthlessness
  • Guilty feeling
  • Hopelessness
  • Thoughts of suicide or self-harm

Read more at Depression

Symptoms of Depression

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Prolonged phlegm: How to manage it?

Have you ever wondered what that slimy and gooey liquid we sneeze out during cold is? That viscous liquid is phlegm. Prolonged phlegm hinders our daily life, remedies are needed to handle this. These include:

  1. Staying hydrated
  2. Gargling with warm salt water or saline
  3. Using clean filters for heating and cooling systems to keep allergens at bay
  4. Nasal saline spray
  5. Humidifiers
  6. Anti-allergic medications

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Prolonged phlegm: How to manage it

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Macular Degeneration: a leading cause of Blindness

Macular degeneration is a common chronic eye disorder that causes blurred or reduced central vision or a blind spot in your visual field due to thinning of the macula.

Symptoms may include:

  • Reduced central vision that may affect one or both eyes
  • Distorted vision (metamorphopsia) such as a grid of straight lines appearing wavy or bent.
  • Decreased intensity or brightness of colors
  • Adapting to low light levels becomes increasingly difficult, such as when entering a dark room or a dimly lit restaurant.
  • Increased blurriness of printed words or a general haziness in your overall vision or a well-defined blurry spot or a blind spot in your field of vision.
  • Difficulty recognizing faces.

read more at macular degeneration.

Macular Degeneration: a leading cause of Blindness

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